Cognitive development on high school learners

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Cognitive development on high school learners

  1. 1. Bicol University College Of Education Daraga, Albay COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT ON HIGH SCHOOL LEARNERS Prepared & Reported by: Nickole G. Ordiales BSEd I-R 2nd Sem. S.Y.: 2013-2014
  2. 2. “ Adolescence is that time when I think it can be” -Anonymous
  3. 3. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT  It is the emergence of the ability to think, reason and understand.  And it is said that “Adolescence marks the beginning development of more complex thinking processes called formal logical operations”.  Jean Piaget's theory has become one of the most influential theories of cognitive development.
  4. 4. BRAIN DEVELOPMENT 1. Acquisition of new skills due to brains increasing weight and refining synaptic connections (corpus callosum). 2. Process of continuous concentration of brain cell in prefrontal cortex and temporal and parietal areas (myelination)
  5. 5. BRAIN DEVELOPMENT… 3. Three peaks of maturation at the age of 12, 15 and 18.5 4.Acquire spatial awareness and formulate abstract or general ideas. 5. From ages 13 to about age 25, a pruning and strengthening process is happening in their brains
  6. 6. PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  7. 7. PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT… FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE (12-Aduthoood)  It marks a movement from an ability to think and reason from concrete visible events to an ability to think hypothetically; to entertain what-if possibilities about the world; develop abstractthinking and can solve problems systematically by using abstract concepts.  The cognitive structures of this stage can be characterized by four rules for manipulating the content of thought: 1.identity 2. negation 3.reciprocity 4.correlativity
  8. 8. PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT… FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE… Formal Operational Thinking consist in: a. Propositional thinking - assertion of outside visual evidence. b. Relativistic thinking- subjective making of opinions on facts. c. Real versus possible- examining a situation and exploring the possible in terms of situations or solution.
  9. 9. FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE… Hypothetic-Deductive Reasoning  It emerges in reasoning from facts or situation to a particular situation.  It is very important method for testing theories or hypotheses. The HD method is one of the most basic methods common to all scientific disciplines including biology, physics, and chemistry. Its application can be divided into five stages: 1. Form many hypotheses and evaluate each hypothesis 2. Select a hypothesis to be tested 3. Generate predications from the hypothesis 4. Use experiments to check whether predictions are correct 5. If the predictions are correct, then the hypothesis is confirmed. If not, the hypothesis is disconfirmed.
  10. 10.  Hypothetic-Deductive Reasoning Example HD reasoning could be useful in everyday life. Here is an example: 1.Suppose your portable music player fails to switch on. You might consider the hypothesis that perhaps the batteries are dead. You decide to test whether this is true. 2.Given this hypothesis, you predict that the music player should work properly if you replace the batteries with new ones. 3.You proceed to replace the batteries, which is the "experiment" for testing the prediction. 4.If the player works again, then your hypothesis is confirmed, and you throw away the old batteries. If the player still does not work, the prediction was false, and the hypothesis is disconfirmed. You might reject your hypothesis.
  11. 11. FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE…  Problem-Solving Thinker  Outside from formal operational thinking that can be developed by mathematical and science studies.  It is the identifying the problem and seeking new and creative solutions. STEPS TO BECOME PROBLEM-SOLVER 1. Observe and ask questions. Watch the way in which others perform. Ask others how they solve problems. 2. Approach from a different angle. Think of potential solutions as if you were a child 3. Learn a new word. Look at dictionary and find the "Word of the Day." Use the word several times during the day. 4. Understand something new. Watch movies, read or look at pieces of art in genres or styles that would normally be of no interest. Read more about them.
  12. 12. SIEGLER’S INFORMATION PROCESSING SKILLS It views the human mind as a system that processes information according to a set of logical rules and limitations similar to those with which a computer is programmed. Four important processes : 1.Encoding and Representation ROBERT SIEGLER 2. Strategies 3.Automatization 4. Generalization In his experiments he uses role model, thereupon, adolescents may show the ff.; a. Speed in information processing b. Complexity c. increased volume of information processing
  13. 13. METACOGNITION  It is defined as "cognition about cognition", or "knowing about knowing". It comes from the root word "meta", meaning behind.  It is the ability to think above thinking INFORMATION PROCESSING TRENDS 1. The knowledge acquired through experience is stored in long term memory and become declarative and procedural. 2. Learners are aware of their poor memory. 3. Ability to acquire an increased amount of knowledge and skills.
  14. 14. METACOGNITION… THREE COMPONENTS OF METACOGNITION 1.Metacognitive knowledge or metacognitive awareness -is what individuals know about themselves and others as cognitive processors. 2.Metacognitive regulation -is the regulation of cognition and learning experiences through a set of activities that help people control their learning. It contains three skills; a.Planning: refers to the appropriate selection of strategies and the correct allocation of resources that affect task performance. b.Monitoring: refers to one's awareness of comprehension and task performance c.Evaluating: refers to appraising the final product of a task and the efficiency at which the task was performed. This can include re-evaluating strategies that were used. 3.Metacognitive experiences -are those experiences that have something to do with the current, on-going cognitive endeavor.
  15. 15. THREE TYPES OF METACOGNITIVE AWARENESS 1.Declarative Knowledge -refers to knowledge about oneself as a learner and about what factors can influence one's performance. 2. Procedural Knowledge -refers to knowledge about doing things. This type of knowledge is displayed as heuristics and strategies. A high degree of procedural knowledge can allow individuals to perform tasks more automatically. This is achieved through a large variety of strategies that can be accessed more efficiently. 3.Conditional knowledge -refers to knowing when and why to use declarative and procedural knowledge. It allows students to allocate their resources when using strategies. This in turn allows the strategies to become more effective.
  16. 16. OVERACHIEVERS -are individuals who "perform better or achieve more success than expected." The implicit presumption is that the "overachiever" is achieving superior results through excessive effort.  Achievement and IQ test are use to measure learners abilities.  Those who fall to the top 3 and 5percent are recognize as gifted.  The latter are overachievers who has a very high grade.
  17. 17. OVERACHIEVERS… IQ test - a score derived from one of several standardized tests designed to assess intelligence. Advantages 1.Good predictor of success in school achievement 2. Beneficial in identifying learning French psychologist Alfred Binet was one of the key developers of deficiencies. what later became known as the Disadvantage Stanford–Binet test. 1. Don’t measure the great number of abilities that belong to human intelligence.
  18. 18. CHARACTERISTIC OF OVERACHIEVERS 1. Positive self-value 2. Openness to authority 3. Positive interpersonal relations 4. Less conflict on issue of self-autonomy 5. Academic oriented 6. Goal-oriented 7. Control over anxiety
  19. 19. UNDERACHIEVERS  Individual whose performance falls below the measured IQ levels.  It is a person and especially a student who fails to achieve his or her potential or does not do as well as expected. TWO TYPES OF UNDERACHIEVER 1. Withdrawn - more passive of their overt behavior, submissive and docile. 2. Aggressive - tend to be talkative, if not disruptive and rebellious.
  20. 20. PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT The influences of parents appears to the dominant influence on the adolescent’s achievement level then peer group influence. Parents of High Achievers demonstrate the ff.: Positivity in all aspect Harmonious and supportive relationship Own capabilities for success, conflict management, independent choice with which children can identify. 4. Encouragement and support for their children achievement without undue pressure. 5. Active involvement in school. 1. 2. 3.
  21. 21. PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT… Parents of Underachievers demonstrate the ff.: 1. Indifference and disinterestedness in academic and extra-curricular activities. 2. Authoritarian, restrictive and rejecting attitudes or being excessively lax. 3. Excessive indulgence, solicitousness, and protectiveness.
  22. 22. POSSIBLE ADOLESCENT BEHAVIOR DURING COGNITIVE GROWTH 1. Egocentrism -thinking too much of themselves. a. Imaginary audience -admirers that exist only in the teenager’s imagination. b. Personal fable -a teenager's exaggerated sense of their own uniqueness. 2. Idealism -adolescent opens thought on the possible.
  23. 23. DEVELOPING OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS Holland Codes -is a theory of careers and vocational choice based upon personality types. It was developed by the psychologist John L. Holland. John Holland June 21, 1914May 31,2009 Each letter or code stands for a particular "type": 1.Realistic (Doers) 2. Investigative (Thinkers) 3. Artistic (Creators) 4. Social (Helpers) 5. Enterprising (Persuaders) 6.Conventional (Organizers). The Holland RIASEC hexagon
  24. 24. DEVELOPING OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS … BASIC PERSONALITY FACTORS 1.Realistic (Doers) -prefer practical task that require physical labor and motor coordination. Examples: carpenters, drivers, electrician, engineer etc… 2. Investigative (Thinkers) -prefer to think rather than act Example: computer programmer, chemist, detective, scientist, etc… 3. Artistic (Creators) -prefer constructed task and may show ability of self-expression. Example: architect, artist, cartoonist, sculptor, etc…
  25. 25. DEVELOPING OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS … BASIC PERSONALITY FACTORS… 4. Social (Helpers) -tend to engaged in interpersonal situation and social interaction. Example: social worker, baby sitter, physician, broadcaster, etc… 5. Enterprising (Persuaders) -skilled and constructive in thoughts and actions and capable of leading others. Example: trainer, politics, recruiter, activist, etc… 6.Conventional (Organizers) -prefer structured task Example: clerks, cashier, receptionist, secretary, etc….
  26. 26. ATTITUDES AND ABILITIES NEEDED FOR GAINFUL OCCUPATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Self-reliance Ability to manage money Social responsibility Mature work Personal responsibility Positive attitudes
  27. 27. EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES  School activities outside the subject are mechanism for further development of the adolescent student, allowing them to acquire new attitudes, knowledge, and skills and an avenue for leadership.  Such activities are generally voluntary as opposed to mandatory, non-paying, social, philanthropic as opposed to scholastic, and often involve others of the same age.  Students often organize and direct these activities under faculty sponsorship, although student-led initiatives, such as independent newspapers, are common.

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