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Saladin, Muslim military hero,Ayyubids Dinasty,Saladin & the Crusaders ,

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Saladin, Muslim military hero,Ayyubids Dinasty,Saladin & the Crusaders ,

  1. 1. One hero for two cultures : SaladinLab in Heritage Interpretationprof. Claudio VisentinAnaa SaleemElnara MehdiyevaElnara Huseynova
  2. 2. Table of ContentI. IntroductionII. Brief history• Ayyubid Dynasty• Saladin & CrusadersIII. Popularity between cultures• Islamic/Arabic world• Western perspectiveIV. Saladin & TourismV. Discussion
  3. 3. SALADIN Saladin is well known to be one of the most famous Muslim military heroes & one of the greatest Kings in the world. In the late 12th century he succeeded in unifying various parts of the Middle East and Mesopotamia & in overtaking the early Crusades army through a two discussio combination of shrewd history cultures tourism n diplomacy and decisive
  4. 4. Saladin ‘s Background Name: Yousif Ayoub Abu Al-Mouthafar. Known in Arabic (Salah ad Dien Al-Ayoubi) Originally from: Kurdistan Place and Date of Birth: Tikrit, Iraq - 1138 Religion: Muslim Descriptive Epithet: Saladin means (Righteousness of the Faith) & Al-Malik Al-Nasir (Victorious King) He created: The Ayyubid Dynasty from 1174 to 1341; situated today in Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Israel & Turkey Death: 1193, Damascus at the age of 55/56 discussio two history tourism cultures n
  5. 5. Brief History• In 1163 the King of Levant (Nour Al-Din Zengy) sent an army led by (Asad Al-Din Shrikuh) to Egypt in a response of a help call from the Minister of Egypt to aid the State’s domestic problems. Saladin went to Egypt too with the Levant’s army• By the time Asad Al-Din Shrikuh became the Minister of Egypt and after his death Saladin took his place two discussio history Governor of tourism• In 1171 he became the cultures n Egypt
  6. 6. Brief History•In 1174 Saladin became theGovernor of Hijaz & Yemen (parts ofwhat is known as the ArabianPeninsula)•After Nour Al-Din Zengy’s death inthe same year - the Governor ofLevant unification of his dynasty with thegovernors in the Turkish lands and inthe west of Iraq two discussio history tourism cultures n
  7. 7. Ayyubid Dynasty
  8. 8. Ayyubid Dynasty in his era: The Political Situation: Unified Muslim countries Unified Jerusalem to Muslim Lands Saladin gained the respect from Crusade kings two discussio history tourism cultures n
  9. 9.  Social Situation: The construction & architecture have been developed The building of new facilities : schools & mosques The enhancement of the art of poems & poetry two discussio history tourism cultures n
  10. 10.  Economic situation: More active trading between Egypt and Levant More energy on the agricultural side These continuous wars caused Economic crisis, Starvation and Poverty two parties to make the truces two discussio history tourism cultures n
  11. 11.  Religious Situation: More Islamic writings were published Saladin was deeply attached to the Islamic Religion two discussio history tourism cultures n
  12. 12. Saladin & the Crusaders Crusade’s Background History: The Crusader’s military was composed of Roman Catholics from all over Western Europe. It was launched in response to a call from the leaders of the Byzantine Empire (the eastern Roman Orthodox Empire) & its capital city was Constantinople (Istanbul now) to fight against the expansion of Muslim countries in order to protect Christian Pilgrimage in Jerusalem, moreover expand their Empire in the east The Crusades in the Muslims East were from 1096 to 1291 The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Catholic Kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 two discussio history tourism cultures n
  13. 13. Saladin and the Crusaders In 1180 Saladin accomplished a truce with King Baldwin IV (King of Jerusalem) that contained the free passing and trading borders between the two parties - the Muslims & the Christians, after a long series of battles between the two sides upon The Levant area In1182 several wars took place between the two parties In1187 the Muslim lands had faced a conquest by the Crusaders; they crowned themselves to be Kings and Princes to those lands, this led to the two discussio history tourism need of a battle to release the land & stop cultures n harassing the Muslim caravans
  14. 14.  July 4th 1187 Battle of Hattin, held on Hattin Hills, Palestine Duration 7 hours: the Muslim army - 25.000 the Crusade’s - 63.000• ended by the Muslim’s victory & the capture of (Guy of Lusignan) King of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guy_of_Lusignan The Crusader State of Jerusalem two discussio history tourism cultures n
  15. 15. On September 20th 1187 Saladin took back Jerusalem tothe Muslims Lands. He treated the Crusaders there withmercy as he didn’t kill anyone & gave them time to goback to Europe again in 40 days with paying a Tribute of10 Dinar for every man, 5 Dinar for every woman, and 1Dinar for every child.
  16. 16. Saladin and the Crusaders 3rd Crusade Army to Jerusalem, led by Richard Lion Heart (King of England) & Philip Augustus (King of France) September 7th 1191 Battle of Arsuf : the Crusade’s victory but they couldn’t enter Jerusalem Until June 1192 Saladin & Richard signed a new truce: “Jerusalem stays under Muslims Lands & it allowed Christians to practice their pilgrimage” two discussio history tourism cultures n
  17. 17. Saladin’s 2 popular says: “Bury with me my sword, for it to bear goodwitness for me on the Day of Judgment”. “Praise is to God, for he brought victory toIslam through the faithful and was benevolent toMuslims”.
  18. 18. Saladin’s Death died on the 4th of March 1193 at the age of 55/ 56 buried in Azizia School near The Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria two discussio history tourism cultures n
  19. 19. SALADIN IN THE ISLAMIC / ARABIC WORLD Saladin  is one of the miracles of Islam impressiveThe Hero who gave Jerusalem its freedomHumble King  they found only a few boxes in hiscupboard after his death Victorious King  stabilized country conditions ofEgyptDiplomacy and Nobel Leader  his forgiveness & mercywere shown when he treated the captives gently andallowed them to get their freedom by paying a Tributeafter taking back Jerusalem two discussio history tourism cultures n
  20. 20. SALADIN IN THE ISLAMIC / ARABIC WORLDSophisticated Leader  he developed the countryin a sophisticated way to reach its peak at that eraLoyal  he was known for keeping his promisesand truces with the Crusades, one of the reasons whyhe gained their King’s respect like (Richard theLionheart)One of the most generous rulers in the IslamicworldMercy and support of the vulnerable peopleSelf Confident, Brave, Passion, Fair, Courage,Gallant Knight two discussio history tourism cultures n
  21. 21. Saladin’ s Popularity between Cultures The remarkable popularity among the leaders of the world even after his death In 1898 Wilhelm ll (Guillaume II) last German Emperor and the king of Prussia gave the Ottoman Sultan (Abdul Hamid) a coffin made of Onyx Marble in the honor of the respected Saladin two discussio history tourism cultures n
  22. 22. Saladin’ s Popularity between Cultures the Millennium Issue of Times Magazine (December 31, 1999) dedicated a full page for an artists image of Saladin: "When Dante Alighieri compiled his great medieval Whos Who of heroes and villains in the Divine Comedy, among the highest a non-Christian could climb was Limbo, Homer, Caesar, Plato and Dantes guide Vergil. But, perhaps what should not be most surprising in his catalog of Great Hearted Souls was a figure solitary, set apart, “that figure was Saladin”. When Dante - the most Christ-centered verse ever penned-wrote lionizing his name, Saladin had been dead for one hundred years." This solitary figure in Dantes Divine Comedy stands today as it did in the past as a testament to his extraordinary stature. some Christians thought that "Saladin had European blood in his veins, and two a Christian knightdiscussio was at heart history tourism cultures n
  23. 23. A Legendary Figure in the Western WorldI. Prevention of Christian bloodbath “After capturing Jerusalem in 1187, Saladins civilized act in signing the peace treaty & saving Christian blood was indeed a pious act. He not only spared the lives of 100,000 Christians, but also guaranteed their safe departure along with their property and belongings. They were given forty days to prepare for departure”II. Releasing prisoners who were not able to pay their ransom “Part of the condition of the surrender of Jerusalem, was that each Christian pays her or his ransom. Thousands of Christians, mainly women, were not able to pay their ransom. To save them from slavery, al-Adel, Saladins brother, Geukburi, Saladins brother-in law and Saladin himself, instead paid their ransom out of their own pockets. This act was done in spite of the fact that some rich two discussio Christians such as the Patriarch, Heraclius and Madame la history tourism cultures Patriarchesse of Jerusalem had so much wealth that they n had currency by the load”
  24. 24. III. Beyond justice “During the forty days respite that was given to the Westerners to leave Jerusalem, several Christian women approached Saladin stating that their guardians (husbands, fathers or sons) had been missing. They explained to Saladin that they had no one to look after them, nor did they have any shelter. He ordered his soldiers to find their missing guardians, and that for those of them whose guardian was determined dead, they should be given a liberal compensation”IV. "Victory is changing the hearts of your opponents by gentleness and kindness."- Saladin “ In September 1192, during the siege of Acre, king Richard the Lionheart gained a lasting respect for Saladin. When Richard fell sick, Saladin sent him his own physician to treat him. Along with this health care, he frequently sent him ice to cool down his fever and two discussio history were necessary for his recovery” plum fruits that tourism cultures n
  25. 25. V. A pure chivalric romance “During an offense made by King Richard against a Muslim squadron under Saladins son al Zaher, King Richards horse was killed and the King of England was down on the ground. Observing this scene, Saladin sent him two remounts so that he would not be at a disadvantage”VI. Recovery of a snatched child “During the siege of Acre, a Christian woman came to Saladins camp weeping and wailing insisting that her child was snatched away by his soldiers. He himself returned the child to his mother and had them mount on the back of a mare to be returned twosafely to their camp” discussio history tourism cultures n
  26. 26. VII. Romance in the freedom of religion “Through an interpreter, Saladin used to communicate with virtually all the prisoners of war. During the siege of Acre several soldiers were captured. Among them was an old man who was so old that he was toothless and could hardly walk. Saladin questioned him as to why he was there. The old man said that he had no thought but to make a pilgrimage to the Church of the Resurrection in Jerusalem. Having heard this Saladin provided a horse for him and ordered that he be escorted to Jerusalem to fulfill his worship dream”VIII. Mischief is not tolerated “Among the captures in the battle of Hettin were Crusade leaders such as King Guy of Jerusalem, Raymond of Syden, and Raymond of Chatillon. King Guy and Raymond of Syden were released and escorted to safety, but Raymond of Chatillon of the Kerak Castle who had often ambushed emissaries, pilgrim and merchant caravans, burned crops and destroyed fruit trees and vegetation was not spared. Before his execution, however, Saladin gave two discussio history to become a Muslim and repent, but he him the chance tourism cultures n refused”
  27. 27. • The French historian Rene Grousse described Saladin saying: “…It is equally true that his generosity, his piety, devoid of fanaticism, that flower of liberality and courtesy which had been the model of our old chroniclers, won him no less popularity in Frankish Syria than in the lands of Islam’’. two discussio history tourism cultures n
  28. 28. Movies & Literature Saladin as a character has appeared in many movies & series. For example : the Arabic movie ( Al Nassir Saladin) and the English movie (Kingdom of Heaven) The epics poems and novels have been written about him in both languages Arabic and English such as The Talisman ( Tales of Crusaders) in 1825 Documentary Movie Kingdom of Heaven two discussio history tourism cultures n
  29. 29. Saladin andTourism
  30. 30. Syria Azizia School located in Damascus, Syria graves of the heroes Saladin and Nour Al-Din Zengy nearby the Umayyad Mosque - the Grand Mosque of Damascus is one of the largest, oldest and holiest mosques in the world it holds a tomb which is said to contain the head of John the Baptist two discussio history tourism cultures n
  31. 31. Statue of Saladin• built in 1993, by architect Abdallah al- Sayed located far away from his burial site, precisely next to the historical citadel of Damascus shows Saladin atop his horse with his soldiers protecting him on all sides two discussio history tourism cultures n
  32. 32. Egypt http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cairo_Citadel Architecture• Saladin Castle (Cairo)today known as Mohammed Ali  Citadel of Saladin(Cairo), which is known ascastle (Mohammed Ali castle) today. Saladin started toSaladin started to build this castlebut he build this castle but he died before its completion died before its completionthe Castle contains al-NasirMohamed & the Suleyman Pasha fourteenth century  the citadel contains theMosqueshypostyle al-Nasir Mohamed mosque and the Suleyman Pasha Mosque
  33. 33.  Saladin Castle (Taba) located in Pharaoh Island in The Red Sea ,Taba, Egypt built by The Crusade’s & later named after Saladin the island is surrounded by amazing coral reefs two discussio history tourism cultures n
  34. 34. Jordan Baqoura Village only Local city and not open for tourists the city is where Saladin’s army got ready for Hattin Battle two discussio history tourism cultures n
  35. 35.  Ajlun Castle stands upon Auf Mountain near Ajloun, Northern Jordan Saladin ordered his assistance to build this castle to prevent Crusader expansions. a view of The Ajlun Mountains, the Dead Sea & Palestine two discussio history tourism cultures n
  36. 36. the Castle of Kerak
  37. 37.  located in Kerak, Jordan a large Crusader castle built in 1142 controlled by Ayyubid after the capture of Jerusalem museums inside & it is open touristic place two discussio history tourism cultures n
  38. 38. Places Saladin Castle of Umayyad Ajlun Saladin Castle Kerak Mosque castle Castle (Cairo) (Taba)Excellent 78 7 29 3 3Very good 43 22 3 4 3Average 14 10 0 1 0Poor 1 0 0 0 0Terrible 0 0 0 0 0Total 136 39 32 8 6
  39. 39. Tourists’ Reviews’’…one of the most beautiful mosques of the city. The area offers a perfect view. A must-see for all tourists”“… the most amazing part of Cairo, the Islamic art through history and the amazing architecture” Saladin Castle (Cairo) “There are many medieval castles jotted about Europe all with wonderful history attached but you will be hard pressed to find a place that tops this one. A much underrated gem I believe which gets overlooked…” The Castle of Kerak “Not every day you have a chance to stand in one country and to be able to look at 3 other countries. Thats how I felt when I visited the Castle for the first time. Israel Jordon and Saudi is few hundred meters away “ Saladin Castle (Taba)“This is a very huge historical place just stay and think and take picture, very very exciting and peaceful...you dont want to say goodbye... Its history is unique with roman and Christian influences” Umayyad mosque“I really enjoyed wandering in the labyrinth-like castle, in the mysterious lights, climb in the top and see a full panorama of Tuscany-like
  40. 40. DiscussionCan we really consider Saladin as thegreatest king in the world as he showed hispower and control in a diplomatic way?Does the world need a leader such asSaladin who spread peace betweenreligions? two discussio history tourism cultures n
  41. 41. If the Saladin Itinerary was created would it have the success?
  42. 42. References1. http://www.sacred-destinations.com/israel/jerusalem-church-of-holy-sepulchre2. The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land . Thomas E. Levy Chapter 29  Settlement and Society formation in Crusader Palestine.Chapter 30  Between Cairo and Damascus: Rural Life and urban Economics in the holy Land during theAyyubid, Mamluk and Ottoman Periods.3. http://books.google.ch/books?id=-etsKv- 4V2oC&pg=PA512&lpg=PA512&dq=Crusader+and+Ayyubid+Period&source=bl&ots=tGa1idq2gi&sig =S80rjDc2Alq-zfszmQOtWBLRkHg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UtmKT- KLOYmdOvCz5cIJ&ved=0CFcQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=Crusader%20and%20Ayyubid%20Period&f=fa lse4. Saladin and the fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. STANLEY LANE.. Chapter V Saladins Youth: 1138- 11645. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=11317040 Ibn Katheer. Al-Bedaya wa Al-Nehaya (the begging and the end of history) Book , part 8, 574 AHtime.6. http://archive.org/details/alhelawy07 Ibn Al-atheer. Al-Kamel fe Al-tarekh (the complete history) Book 12, edition 3. Saladin7. http://www.islamicbook.ws/tarekh/alkaml-032.html Baha’a Al-Din Bin Shadad. Seyrat Salah Al-Din (Saladin story).8. http://www.maktbtna2211.com/book/15879. http://www.crusades-encyclopedia.com/primarysourcesthirdcrusade.html10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Jerusalem11. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raynald_of_Ch%C3%A2tillon12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajlun_Castle13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cairo_Citadel
  43. 43. 14. http://www.egypt4tours.net/ar/article.php?id=108#.T52CiIHQTQs15. http://itlalala.blogspot.com/2008/02/blog-post_6659.html16. George Jabour article, Intellectual symposium at the Library of Bashar Al-Asad, Damascus, Syria. http://www.discover-syria.com/news/73517. http://www.islamic-study.org/saladin_(salahu_ad-deen).htm The Institute of Arabic and Islamic Studies in California, USA18. http://www.sacred-destinations.com/syria/damascus-umayyad-mosque19. http://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Review-g294011-d561047-Reviews-Umayyad_Mosque-Damascus.html20. http://www.tripadvisor.in/Attraction_Review-g297557-d1559503-Reviews-Salah_El_Din_s_Castle-Taba_Red_Sea_and_Sinai.html21. http://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Review-g294201-d553171-Reviews-or10-Mohamed_Ali_Mosque_Citadel_of_Saladin-Cairo.html#REVIEWS22. http://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Review-g1396864-d555314-Reviews-Ajlun_Castle_Qala_at_ar_Rabad-Ajlun_Ajlun_Governorate.html23. http://www.tripadvisor.in/Attraction_Review-g293987-d555747-Reviews-Kerak_Castle-Dead_Sea_Region.html

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