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Lecture 19.1a- Acid/Base Properties


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Section 19.1 lecture (part A) for Honors & Prep Chemistry

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Lecture 19.1a- Acid/Base Properties

  1. 1. 19.1 Lecture 19.1a- Properties of Acids and Bases Acids taste sour, will change the color of an acid-base indicator, and can be strong or weak electrolytes in aqueous solution.
  2. 2. 19.1 Citrus fruits contain citric acid. Tea contains tannic acid.
  3. 3. 19.1 Bases taste bitter, feel slippery, will change the color of an acid-base indicator, and can be strong or weak electrolytes in aqueous solution.
  4. 4. Antacids use bases to neutralize excess stomach acid. The base calcium hydroxide is a component of mortar.
  5. 5. The Arrhenius definition of ACIDS AND BASES Acids dissociate to produce H+ HCl  H+ + Cl- Bases dissociate to produce OH- NaOH  Na+ + OH-
  6. 6. HCl  H+ + Cl- Or HCl + H2O  H3O+ + Cl- H+ and H3O+ mean the same thing
  7. 7. H + is a proton Acids form H+ which attaches to water forming the hydronium ion H+ + H2O  H3O+ hydronium ion H+ and H3O+ mean the same thing
  8. 8. An acidic hydrogen can dissociate from the acid as H+. Acidic hydrogens are written first in the chemical formula. HNO3 = monoprotic acid H2SO4 = diprotic acid H3PO4 = triprotic acid HC2H3O2 = monoprotic protic aka proton
  9. 9. 19.1 Stomach acid Battery acid In soda pop Acetic acid Vinegar Makes bubbles in carbonated beverages
  10. 10. 19.1 Arrhenius Bases Hydroxide ions are one of the products of the dissolution of an alkali metal in water.
  11. 11. 19.1
  12. 12. Milk of magnesia is a base used as an antacid.
  13. 13. When acids and bases are mixed they react to form water in a Neutralization reaction NaOH + HCl  H2O + NaCl(aq) An acid/base reaction always forms water and an aqueous salt The net ionic equation for an acid/base reaction is H+ + OH-  H2O
  14. 14. PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND BASES ACIDS BASES Produce H+ Produce OH- pH below 7 pH above 7 Sour taste Bitter taste H+ + some metals = H2(g) Slippery feel Litmus paper red Litmus paper blue React with base to React with acid to form water and salt form water & salt BOTH ACIDS AND BASES ARE ELECTROLYTES