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Section 14.2 lecture (part B) for Honors & Prep Chemistry

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- 1. <ul><li>Bellwork- Gas Variables </li></ul><ul><li>What four variables are needed to describe a gas sample? </li></ul><ul><li>What units are they measured in? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you need to know what kind of gas it is? </li></ul>
- 2. The combined gas law Uses three gas variables to describe a gas sample at two different times. If a variable does not change (is constant) it can be removed from the equation. P 1 V 1 P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2 =
- 3. Boyle’s Law: Pressure and Volume <ul><ul><li>If the temperature is constant, as the pressure of a gas increases, the volume decreases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LAW - P , V </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constants- amount of gas, Temp </li></ul></ul>P 1 V 1 P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2 = P 1 V 1 P 2 V 2 =
- 4. <ul><ul><ul><li>Boyle’s law states that for a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only if T and n are held constant </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 5. INDIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL aka INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL
- 6. Boyle Problem V 1 = 30.0L All math examples should be in your notes L measures Volume(V)
- 7. Boyle Problem V 1 = 30.0L V 2 = ? P 1 = 103 kPa P 2 = 25.0 kPa kPa measures Pressure(P)
- 8. Boyle Problem V 1 = 30.0L V 2 = ? P 1 = 103 kPa P 2 = 25.0 kPa These two values go together because they describe the gas at the same moment.
- 9. Boyle Problem V 1 = 30.0L V 2 = ? P 1 = 103 kPa This is the unknown
- 10. Boyle Problem V 1 = 30.0L V 2 = ? P 1 = 103 kPa P 2 = 25.0 kPa This is a pressure value
- 11. Boyle Problem V 1 = 30.0L V 2 = ? P 1 = 103 kPa P 2 = 25.0 kPa These two values go together because they describe the gas at the same moment.
- 12. Boyle Problem Temp is constant and I need an equation that relates pressure and volume. P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 V 1 = 30.0L V 2 = ? P 1 = 103 kPa P 2 = 25.0 kPa P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2
- 13. Boyle Problem P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 103 kPa x 30L = 25.0 kPa x V 2 ___________ ___________ 25.0 kPa 25.0kPa = 124 L P ,V GOOD! V 1 = 30.0L V 2 = ? P 1 = 103 kPa P 2 = 25.0 kPa
- 14. for Sample Problem 14.1
- 15. <ul><li>Charles’s Law: Temperature and Volume </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As the temperature of an enclosed gas increases, the volume increases, if the pressure is constant. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LAW- T ,V </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constants- moles of gas, Pressure </li></ul></ul>P 1 V 1 P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2 = V 1 V 2 T 1 T 2 =
- 16. <ul><ul><ul><li>Charles’s law states that the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if the pressure is kept constant. </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 17. DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL
- 18. 14.2 T 1 = 24 C T 2 = 58 C V 1 = 4.00L V 2 = ? T must be in Kelvins!! + 273 = 297K + 273 = 331K V 2 = 4L 297K x 331K = 4.46 L T V GOOD! 4.00L V 2 297 K 331 K =
- 19. for Sample Problem 14.2
- 20. <ul><li>Gay-Lussac’s Law: Pressure and Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As the temperature of an enclosed gas increases, the pressure increases, if the volume is constant. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LAW- T , P </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constants- moles of gas, Volume </li></ul></ul>P 1 V 1 P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2 = P 1 P 2 T 1 T 2 =
- 21. <ul><li>Gay-Lussac’s law states that the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature </li></ul><ul><li>if the volume remains constant . </li></ul>
- 22. 14.3
- 26. for Sample Problem 14.3
- 27. <ul><ul><li>The combined gas law allows you to do calculations for situations in which only the amount of gas is constant. </li></ul></ul>
- 32. for Sample Problem 14.4
- 33. <ul><ul><li>1. If the volume of a gas in a container were reduced to one fifth the original volume at constant temperature, the pressure of the gas in the new volume would be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one and one fifth times the original pressure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one fifth of the original pressure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>four fifths of the original pressure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>five times the original pressure. </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 34. 14.2 Section Quiz. <ul><ul><li>3. At 46°C and 89 kPa pressure, a gas occupies a volume of 0.600 L. How many liters will it occupy at 0°C and 20.8 kPa? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.600 L </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.58 L </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.140 L </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.20 L </li></ul></ul></ul>

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