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Section 12.3 Lecture for Honors Chemistry

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- 1. Bellwork- Make 1cup of water H 2 + O 2 H 2 O How many liters of H 2 gas and O 2 gas at STP are required to make a cup of water? One cup (240mL) has a mass of 240g for pure water. 240g H 2 O x 1mol = 13.3mol H 2 O 18g 13.3 mol H 2 O x 13.3 mol H 2 O x 2 2 2 moles H 2 2 moles H 2 O 1 mole O 2 . 2 moles H 2 O = 13.3mol H 2 = 6.67mol O 2 x 22.4L/mol = 299L H 2 x 22.4L/mol = 149L O 2
- 2. Limiting Reagent and Percent Yield <ul><li>If a carpenter had two tabletops and seven table legs, he cou ld only build one four-legged table. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of table legs is the limiting factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, in chemistry, the amount of product made in a chemical reaction may be limited by the amount of one or more of the reactants. </li></ul>
- 3. <ul><ul><ul><li>2 H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When reactants combine in their stoichiometric ratio (a.k.a. mole ratio ), both reactants will be completely used. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In any other ratio, one of the reactants will be used up and the other will have some left over. </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 4. <ul><ul><ul><li>In a chemical reaction, an insufficient quantity of any of the reactants will limit the amount of product that forms. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The limiting reagent is the reagent that determines the amount of product that can be formed by a reaction. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
- 5. <ul><ul><ul><li> N 2 + 3H 2 2NH 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You’ve got 2mole N 2 3mol H 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much NH 3 can you make? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the limiting reactant? </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 6. <ul><ul><ul><li> N 2 + 3H 2 2NH 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You’ve got 2mole N 2 3mol H 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much NH 3 can you make? Only 2 moles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the limiting reactant? Hydrogen, because there is not enough H 2 to react with the 2nd mole of N 2. </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 7. <ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen is the reagent that is not completely used up in the reaction. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The reagent that is not used up is called the excess reagent . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> N 2 + 3H 2 2NH 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You’ve got 2mole N 2 3mol H 2 </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 8. 12.7
- 9. 12.7
- 10. 12.7
- 11. 12.7
- 12. for Sample Problem 12.7
- 13. 12.8Q
- 14. 12.8
- 15. 12.8
- 16. 12.8
- 17. for Sample Problem 12.8
- 18. <ul><ul><ul><li>The percent yield is a measure of the efficiency of a reaction carried out in the laboratory. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A batting average is actually a percent yield. </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 19. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The theoretical yield is the maximum amount of product that could be formed from given amounts of reactants. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In contrast, the amount of product that actually forms when the reaction is carried out in the laboratory is called the actual yield . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>comes from stoichiometry comes from the lab
- 20. <ul><ul><ul><li>The percent yield is the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield expressed as a percent. </li></ul></ul></ul>What yo u get in the lab What you get mathematically
- 21. The actual yield is often lower than the theoretical yield because not all reactions go to completion. The actual yield should never be higher than your theoretical yield.
- 22. 12.9
- 23. 12.9
- 24. 12.9
- 25. 12.9
- 26. 12.10
- 27. 12.10
- 28. 12.10
- 29. 12.10
- 30. for Sample Problem 12.10
- 31. 12.3 Section Quiz. <ul><ul><li>1. In the reaction 3NO 2 + H 2 O 2HNO 3 + NO, how many grams of HNO 3 can form when 1.00 g of NO 2 and 2.25 g of H 2 O are allowed to react? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.913 g </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.667 g </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15.7 g </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.37 g </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 32. 12.3 Section Quiz. <ul><ul><li>2. How many grams of H 2 O can be formed from 24.0 g O 2 and 6.00 g H 2 ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30.0 g </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>27.0 g </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>54.0 g </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>13.5 g </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 33. <ul><ul><li>3. Octane burns according to the following equation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2C 8 H 18 + 25O 2 16CO 2 + 18H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the percent yield if 14.6 g of CO 2 are produced when 5.00 g of C 8 H 18 are burned? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>106% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>94.8% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>34.2% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>62.5% </li></ul></ul></ul>12.3 Section Quiz.

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