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Section 10.1 lecture for Honors & Prep Chemistry

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- 1. Lecture 10.1- The Mole We often measure the amount of something by count, by mass, or by volume .
- 2. In chemical reactions, atoms, molecules & salts react in specific ratios. A chemist must be able to count molecules in order to run a reaction without having any leftover reactants.
- 3. Atoms and molecules are very small. We need a very large number of atoms in order for a sample to be seen and worked with in a lab. The mole is a very big number!
- 4. The mole is the SI unit used to measure quantity. A mole is 6.02 x 10 23 particles 602 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 6.02 x 10 23 is Avogadro’s number
- 5. A mole is 6.02 x 10 23 representative particles
- 6. Representative particles The representative particle for covalent compounds is the molecule . For most elements the r.p. is the atom , but for diatomic elements it is the molecule H 2 N 2 O 2 F 2 Cl 2 Br 2 I 2 For salts it is the formula unit .
- 7. The official definition of one mole is the number of atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12.
- 8. The mole is a very big number! <ul><li>A mole of inches is 1,616,434 light years, or across our galaxy and back 8 times! </li></ul><ul><li>6.02 X 10 23 Donut Holes: Would cover the earth and be 5 miles (8 km) deep. </li></ul><ul><li>6.02 X 10 23 Pennies: Would make at least 7 stacks that would reach the moon. </li></ul><ul><li>6.02 X 10 23 Grains of Sand: Would be more than all of the sand on Miami Beach. </li></ul><ul><li>6.02 X 10 23 Blood Cells: Would be more than the total number of blood cells found in every human on earth. </li></ul><ul><li>1 Liter bottle of Water contains 55.5 moles H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>5 Pound Bag of Sugar contains 6.6 moles of C 12 H 22 O 11 </li></ul>
- 9. Converting moles to number of particles How many atoms are in 3.5 moles of Cu? 3.5 moles Cu 6.02x10 23 atoms 1 mole Cu X = 2.1 x 10 24 atoms 6.02 x 3.5 ≈ 21 21 x 10 23 = 2.1 x 10 24
- 10. Converting number of particles to moles We have 3.0 x 10 25 molecules of water. How many moles? 3.0 x 10 25 molecules X _____1 mole______ 6.02 x 10 23 molecules ≈ 50 moles of water
- 11. 0.5 x 10 (25-23) = 0.5 x 10 2 = 5 x 10 1 6.02 10 23 3.0 x 10 25 6.02 x 10 23 ≈ 50 moles of water 3.0 x 10 25
- 12. <ul><ul><li>Find out how Avogadro’s number is based on the relationship between the amu and the gram. </li></ul></ul>
- 13. The atomic mass is the mass of a single atom of a specific element (with units of amu). The mass of one mole of a specific element (measured in grams) is known as its molar mass. The numerical value of both are equal, only the units change.
- 14. One atom of calcium has an atomic mass of 40.078amu. One mole of calcium has a molar mass of 40.078g.
- 15. Lead 207.2amu per atom 207.2g per mole
- 16. Using the mole allows us to “count” the number of particles in a sample by mass.
- 17. <ul><ul><ul><li>The molar mass of each element is given on the periodic table. </li></ul></ul></ul>The Mass of a Mole of an Element
- 18. The Mass of a Mole of an Element <ul><ul><ul><li>One molar mass of carbon, sulfur, mercury, and iron are shown. </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 19. <ul><ul><li>To calculate the molar mass of a compound, add the masses of the elements in the compound. </li></ul></ul>The Mass of a Mole of a Compound
- 20. <ul><ul><ul><li>Substitute the unit grams for atomic mass units. Thus 1 mol of SO 3 has a mass of 80.1 g. </li></ul></ul></ul>SO 3 contains 1 S and 3 O 1 x 32.1(mass of S) = 32.1 g 3 x 16.0(mass of O) = 48.0g 32.1 + 48 = 80.1g/mol of SO 3
- 21. <ul><ul><ul><li>Molar Masses of Glucose, Water, and Paradichlorobenzene </li></ul></ul></ul>The Mass of a Mole of a Compound
- 22. 1 mole is 6.02 x 10 23 of anything
- 23. 10.4
- 26. Molar Mass <ul><li>Element- </li></ul><ul><li>molar mass is on periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>Compound- </li></ul><ul><li>Add the mass for each element in the compound. </li></ul>

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