Upcoming SlideShare
×

# Lecture 10.1- The Mole

3,437 views

Published on

Section 10.1 lecture for Honors & Prep Chemistry

Published in: Education, Technology
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
• Be the first to comment

Views
Total views
3,437
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
55
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
• One molar mass of carbon, sulfur, mercury, and iron are shown. Each of the quantities contains one mole of the element. Applying Concepts How many atoms of each element are shown?
• One molar mass of carbon, sulfur, mercury, and iron are shown. Each of the quantities contains one mole of the element. Applying Concepts How many atoms of each element are shown?
• One molar mass is shown for each of three molecular compounds. Inferring How can you know that each sample contains Avogadro’s number of molecules?
• ### Lecture 10.1- The Mole

1. 1. Lecture 10.1- The Mole We often measure the amount of something by count, by mass, or by volume .
2. 2. In chemical reactions, atoms, molecules & salts react in specific ratios. A chemist must be able to count molecules in order to run a reaction without having any leftover reactants.
3. 3. Atoms and molecules are very small. We need a very large number of atoms in order for a sample to be seen and worked with in a lab. The mole is a very big number!
4. 4. The mole is the SI unit used to measure quantity. A mole is 6.02 x 10 23 particles 602 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 6.02 x 10 23 is Avogadro’s number
5. 5. A mole is 6.02 x 10 23 representative particles
6. 6. Representative particles The representative particle for covalent compounds is the molecule . For most elements the r.p. is the atom , but for diatomic elements it is the molecule H 2 N 2 O 2 F 2 Cl 2 Br 2 I 2 For salts it is the formula unit .
7. 7. The official definition of one mole is the number of atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12.
8. 8. The mole is a very big number! <ul><li>A mole of inches is 1,616,434 light years, or across our galaxy and back 8 times! </li></ul><ul><li>6.02 X 10 23  Donut Holes: Would cover the earth and be 5 miles (8 km) deep. </li></ul><ul><li>6.02 X 10 23  Pennies: Would make at least 7 stacks that would reach the moon. </li></ul><ul><li>6.02 X 10 23  Grains of Sand: Would be more than all of the sand on Miami Beach. </li></ul><ul><li>6.02 X 10 23  Blood Cells: Would be more than the total number of blood cells found in every human on earth. </li></ul><ul><li>1 Liter bottle of Water contains 55.5 moles H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>5 Pound Bag of Sugar contains 6.6 moles of C 12 H 22 O 11 </li></ul>
9. 9. Converting moles to number of particles How many atoms are in 3.5 moles of Cu? 3.5 moles Cu 6.02x10 23 atoms 1 mole Cu X = 2.1 x 10 24 atoms 6.02 x 3.5 ≈ 21 21 x 10 23 = 2.1 x 10 24
10. 10. Converting number of particles to moles We have 3.0 x 10 25 molecules of water. How many moles? 3.0 x 10 25 molecules X _____1 mole______ 6.02 x 10 23 molecules ≈ 50 moles of water
11. 11. 0.5 x 10 (25-23) = 0.5 x 10 2 = 5 x 10 1 6.02 10 23 3.0 x 10 25 6.02 x 10 23 ≈ 50 moles of water 3.0 x 10 25
12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Find out how Avogadro’s number is based on the relationship between the amu and the gram. </li></ul></ul>
13. 13. The atomic mass is the mass of a single atom of a specific element (with units of amu). The mass of one mole of a specific element (measured in grams) is known as its molar mass. The numerical value of both are equal, only the units change.
14. 14. One atom of calcium has an atomic mass of 40.078amu. One mole of calcium has a molar mass of 40.078g.
15. 15. Lead 207.2amu per atom 207.2g per mole
16. 16. Using the mole allows us to “count” the number of particles in a sample by mass.
17. 17. <ul><ul><ul><li>The molar mass of each element is given on the periodic table. </li></ul></ul></ul>The Mass of a Mole of an Element
18. 18. The Mass of a Mole of an Element <ul><ul><ul><li>One molar mass of carbon, sulfur, mercury, and iron are shown. </li></ul></ul></ul>
19. 19. <ul><ul><li>To calculate the molar mass of a compound, add the masses of the elements in the compound. </li></ul></ul>The Mass of a Mole of a Compound
20. 20. <ul><ul><ul><li>Substitute the unit grams for atomic mass units. Thus 1 mol of SO 3 has a mass of 80.1 g. </li></ul></ul></ul>SO 3 contains 1 S and 3 O 1 x 32.1(mass of S) = 32.1 g 3 x 16.0(mass of O) = 48.0g 32.1 + 48 = 80.1g/mol of SO 3
21. 21. <ul><ul><ul><li>Molar Masses of Glucose, Water, and Paradichlorobenzene </li></ul></ul></ul>The Mass of a Mole of a Compound
22. 22. 1 mole is 6.02 x 10 23 of anything
23. 23. 10.4
24. 26. Molar Mass <ul><li>Element- </li></ul><ul><li>molar mass is on periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>Compound- </li></ul><ul><li>Add the mass for each element in the compound. </li></ul>