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Chapter 3 and 5 lecture- Ecology & Population Growth


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Chapter 3 and 5 lecture- Ecology & Population Growth

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Chapter 3 and 5 lecture- Ecology & Population Growth

  1. 1. Biology E C O L O G Y
  2. 2. Levels of Organization Ecosystem Community Population Individual Biome Biosphere
  3. 3. A species is a group of organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring. Populations are groups of the same species that live in the same area. Humans in Forestville, CA. Communities are populations that live together in a defined area. All species in Forestville, CA- humans, dogs, bugs, birds, fish, plants, fungi, ALL SPECIES!
  4. 4. An ecosystem is all the organisms that live in a particular place, plus the nonliving environment.
  5. 5. A biome is a group of similar ecosystems. (same climate and dominant communities)
  6. 6. The highest level of organization that ecologists study is the entire biosphere itself.
  7. 7. 3–2 Energy Flow

  8. 8. Producers Without a constant input of energy, living systems cannot function. Sunlight is the main energy source for life on Earth.
  9. 9. In a few ecosystems, some organisms obtain energy from a source other than sunlight. A few types of organisms rely on the energy stored in inorganic chemical compounds.
  10. 10. Only plants, some algae, and certain bacteria can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food. Organisms that can produce their own food are called autotrophs.
  11. 11. Autotrophs use energy from the environment to fuel the assembly of simple inorganic compounds into complex organic molecules. These organic molecules combine and recombine to produce living tissue.
  12. 12. Because they make their own food, autotrophs are producers.
  13. 13. Energy From the Sun The best-known autotrophs harness solar energy through a process known as photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, autotrophs use light energy to convert CO2 and H2O into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates.
  14. 14. Photosynthesis is responsible for adding oxygen to—and removing carbon dioxide from— Earth's atmosphere.
  15. 15. Plants are the main autotrophs on land. Algae are the main autotrophs in water. Photosynthetic bacteria are important in certain wet ecosystems such as tidal flats and salt marshes.
  16. 16. Life Without Light Some autotrophs can produce food in the absence of light. When organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates, the process is called chemosynthesis.
  17. 17. Chemosynthesis is performed by several types of bacteria. These bacteria represent a large proportion of living autotrophs.
  18. 18. Some chemosynthetic bacteria live in very remote places on Earth, such as volcanic vents on the deep-ocean floor and hot springs. Others live in more common places, such as tidal marshes along the coast.
  19. 19. Consumers Many organisms cannot harness energy directly from the physical environment. Organisms that rely on other organisms for their food supply are called heterotrophs. Heterotrophs are also called consumers.
  20. 20. There are many different types of heterotrophs. •Herbivores eat plants. •Carnivores eat animals. •Omnivores eat plants and animals. •Detritivores feed on dead matter. •Decomposers, like bacteria and fungi, break down organic matter.
  21. 21. Feeding Relationships The relationships between producers and consumers connect organisms into feeding networks based on who eats whom.
  22. 22. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers). •Energy source ⇒ autotrophs ⇒ heterotrophs
  23. 23. A food chain is a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
  24. 24. In some marine food chains, the producers are microscopic algae and the top carnivore is four steps removed from the producer. Algae Zooplankton Small Fish Squid Shark
  25. 25. A network of complex feeding relationships is called a food web. A food web links all the food chains in an ecosystem together.
  26. 26. This food web shows some of the feeding relationships in a salt-marsh community.
  27. 27. Trophic Levels Each step in a food chain or food web is called a trophic level. Producers make up the first trophic level. Consumers make up the second, third, or higher trophic levels. Each consumer depends on the trophic level below it for energy.
  28. 28. Ecological Pyramids The amount of energy or matter in an ecosystem can be represented by an ecological pyramid. An ecological pyramid is a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web.
  29. 29. Ecologists recognize three different types of ecological pyramids: •energy pyramids •biomass pyramids •pyramids of numbers
  30. 30. 0.1% Third-level 
 consumers 1% Second-level consumers 10% First-level consumers 100% Producers Energy Pyramid: Shows the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level. Only about 10% of the energy that is stored in one trophic level is passed on to the next level.
  31. 31. The more levels that exist between a producer and a top-level consumer in an ecosystem, the less energy that remains from the original amount. 0.1% Third-level 
 consumers 1% Second-level consumers 10% First-level consumers 100% Producers
  32. 32. Biomass Pyramid The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level is called biomass. Biomass is usually expressed in terms of grams of organic matter per unit area. A biomass pyramid represents the amount of potential food available for each trophic level.
  33. 33. Ecological Pyramids 50 grams of human tissue 500 grams of chicken 5000 grams of grass Biomass Pyramid: Represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level. Typically, the greatest biomass is at the base of the pyramid.
  34. 34. Pyramid of Numbers A pyramid of numbers shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level.
  35. 35. Ecological Pyramids Pyramid of Numbers: Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level.
  36. 36. For some ecosystems, the shape of the pyramid of numbers is the same as that of the energy and biomass pyramids. However, in ecosystems where there are fewer producers than there are consumers, such as a forest ecosystem, the pyramid of numbers would not resemble a typical pyramid at all.
  37. 37. 3–3 Cycles of Matter

  38. 38. Recycling in the Biosphere Energy and matter move through the biosphere very differently. Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems.
  39. 39. Elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another through biogeochemical cycles. Matter can cycle because biological systems do not use up matter, they transform it. Matter is assembled into living tissue or passed out of the body as waste products.
  40. 40. •All living things require water to survive. The Water Cycle

  41. 41. •Water moves between the ocean, atmosphere, and land. The Water Cycle

  42. 42. The Water Cycle
 Water molecules enter the atmosphere as water vapor, a gas, when they evaporate from the ocean or other bodies of water.
  43. 43. The Water Cycle
 The process by which water changes from a liquid form to an atmospheric gas is called evaporation.
  44. 44. Water will also evaporate from the leaves of plants in the process of transpiration. The Water Cycle

  45. 45. Water vapor condenses into tiny droplets that form clouds. The water returns to Earth’s surface in the form of precipitation. Water enters streams or seeps into soil where it enters plants through their roots. The Water Cycle

  46. 46. 47 The Water Cycle

  47. 47. All the chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life are its nutrients. Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions. Similar to water, nutrients are passed between organisms and the environment through biogeochemical cycles. Nutrient Cycles
  48. 48. Primary producers, such as plants, usually obtain nutrients in simple inorganic forms from their environment. Consumers obtain nutrients by eating other organisms. Nutrient Cycles
  49. 49. •Carbon is a key ingredient of living tissue. •Biological processes take up and release carbon and oxygen. •Geochemical processes release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and oceans. movie The Carbon Cycle
  50. 50. Biogeochemical processes, such as the burial and decomposition of dead organisms and their conversion under pressure into coal and petroleum (fossil fuels), store carbon underground. Human activities, such as mining, cutting and burning forests, and burning fossil fuels, release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The Carbon Cycle
  51. 51. CO2 in Atmosphere Photosynthesis feeding feeding Respiration Deposition Carbonate Rocks Deposition Decomposition Fossil fuel Volcanic activity Uplift Erosion Respiration Human activity CO2 in Ocean Photosynthesis The Carbon Cycle
  52. 52. •All organisms require nitrogen to make proteins. •Although nitrogen gas is the most abundant form of nitrogen on Earth, only certain types of bacteria can use this form directly. •Bacteria that can use nitrogen gas live in the soil and in legume roots. They convert N2 into ammonia in a process known as nitrogen fixation. The Nitrogen Cycle
  53. 53. Other bacteria in the soil convert ammonia into nitrates and nitrites. Once these products are available, producers can use them to make proteins. Consumers then eat the producers and reuse the nitrogen to make their own proteins. The Nitrogen Cycle
  54. 54. Bacterial 
 nitrogen fixation N2 in Atmosphere NH3 Synthetic fertilizer manufacturer Uptake by producers Reuse by consumers Decomposition excretion Atmospheric 
 nitrogen fixation Uptake by producers Reuse by consumers Decomposition Decomposition excretion NO3 and NO2 The Nitrogen Cycle
  55. 55. When organisms die, decomposers return nitrogen to the soil as ammonia. The ammonia may be taken up again by producers. The Nitrogen Cycle
  56. 56. Other soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas in a process called denitrification. This process releases nitrogen into the atmosphere once again. The Nitrogen Cycle
  57. 57. • Phosphorus is essential to organisms because it helps forms important molecules like DNA and RNA. • Most phosphorus exists in the form of inorganic phosphate. Inorganic phosphate is released into the soil and water as sediments wear down. The Phosphorus Cycle
  58. 58. Phosphate, eventually enters the ocean, where it is used by marine organisms. Some phosphate stays on land and cycles between organisms and the soil. Plants bind the phosphates into organic compounds. The Phosphorus Cycle
  59. 59. •Organic phosphate moves through the food web and to the rest of the ecosystem. Ocean Land Organisms Sediments The Phosphorus Cycle
  60. 60. Nutrient Limitation •The primary productivity of an ecosystem is the rate at which organic matter is created by producers. •One factor that controls the primary productivity of an ecosystem is the amount of available nutrients.
  61. 61. If a nutrient is in short supply, it will limit an organism's growth. When an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient that is scarce or cycles very slowly, this substance is called a limiting nutrient.
  62. 62. When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient—such as runoff from heavily fertilized fields—the result is often an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers. This result is called an algal bloom. Algal blooms can disrupt the equilibrium of an ecosystem.
  63. 63. LAB Mrs. Smith D O O R
  64. 64. 5-1 How Populations Grow Kelp = urchin home = otter food = killer whale food!
  65. 65. Three important characteristics of a population are its: •geographic distribution •density •growth rate
  66. 66. Geographic distribution, or range, describes the area inhabited by a population. Population density is the number of individuals per unit area. Growth rate is the increase or decrease of the number of individuals in a population over time.
  67. 67. Factors that affect population size: •the number of births •the number of deaths •the number of individuals that enter or leave the population A population can grow when its birthrate is greater than its death rate.
  68. 68. Immigration is the movement of individuals into an area, which can cause a population to grow. Populations can increase by immigration as animals in search of mates or food arrive from outside.
  69. 69. Emigration is the movement of individuals out of an area,which can cause a population to decrease in size. Emigration can occur when animals leave to find mates and establish new territories. A shortage of food in one area may also lead to emigration.
  70. 70. Under ideal conditions with unlimited resources, a population will grow exponentially.
  71. 71. Exponential growth occurs when the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate. The population becomes larger and larger until it approaches an infinitely large size. Exponential Growth
  72. 72. Logistic Growth •In nature, exponential growth does not continue in a population for very long.
  73. 73. As resources become less available, the growth of a population slows or stops. Logistic growth occurs when a population's growth slows or stops following a period of exponential growth.
  74. 74. Carrying Capacity •The largest number of individuals of a population that a given environment can support is called its carrying capacity. •When a population reaches the carrying capacity of its environment, its growth levels off. The average growth rate is zero.
  75. 75. 76
  76. 76. 5-2 Limits to Growth
  77. 77. Limiting Factors •The primary productivity of an ecosystem can be reduced when there is an insufficient supply of a particular nutrient. •Ecologists call such substances limiting nutrients.
  78. 78. A limiting nutrient is an example of a more general ecological concept: a limiting factor. In the context of populations, a limiting factor is a factor that causes population growth to decrease.
  79. 79. A limiting factor that depends on population size is called a density- dependent limiting factor.
  80. 80. Density-dependent limiting factors include: •competition •predation •parasitism •disease They are density-dependent because their effects are greater when the population is crowded.
  81. 81. Density-dependent factors operate only when the population density reaches a certain level. These factors operate most strongly when a population is large and dense. They do not affect small, scattered populations as greatly.
  82. 82. Competition •When populations become crowded, organisms compete for food, water space, sunlight and other essentials. •Competition among members of the same species is a density-dependent limiting factor.
  83. 83. Competition can also occur between members of different species. This type of competition can lead to evolutionary change. Over time, the species may evolve to occupy different niches.
  84. 84. •The regulation of a population by predation takes place within a predator-prey relationship, one of the best-known mechanisms of population control.
  85. 85. Wolf and Moose Populations on Isle Royale Moose Wolves
  86. 86. Parasitism and Disease •Parasites can limit the growth of a population. •A parasite lives in or on another organism (the host) and consequently harms it.
  87. 87. •Density-independent limiting factors affect all populations in similar ways, regardless of the population size.
  88. 88. Examples of density-independent limiting factors include: •unusual weather •natural disasters •seasonal cycles •certain human activities—such as damming rivers and clear-cutting forests
  89. 89. 5-3 Human Population Growth
  90. 90. Historical Overview Like the populations of many other living organisms, the size of the human population tends to increase with time. For most of human existence, the population grew slowly. Limiting factors kept population sizes low.
  91. 91. About 500 years ago, the human population began growing more rapidly. Life was made easier and safer by advances in agriculture and industry. Death rates were dramatically reduced due to improved sanitation, medicine, and healthcare, while birthrates remained high.
  92. 92. With these advances, the human population experienced exponential growth. Human Population Growth
  93. 93. Patterns of Population Growth •The scientific study of human populations is called demography. •Demography examines the characteristics of human populations and attempts to explain how those populations will change over time.
  94. 94. Birthrates, death rates, and the age structure of a population help predict why some countries have high growth rates while other countries grow more slowly.
  95. 95. The Demographic Transition •Over the past century, population growth in the United States, Japan, and much of Europe has slowed dramatically. •According to demographers, these countries have completed the demographic transition, a dramatic change in birth and death rates.
  96. 96. The demographic transition has three stages. In stage 1, there are high death rates and high birthrates. In stage 2, the death rate drops, while the birthrate remains high. The population increases rapidly. In stage 3, the birthrate decreases, causing population growth to slow.
  97. 97. The demographic transition is complete when the birthrate falls to meet the death rate, and population growth stops.
  98. 98. Age Structure •Population growth depends, in part, on how many people of different ages make up a given population. •Demographers can predict future growth using models called age-structure diagrams. •Age-structure diagrams show the population of a country broken down by gender and age group.
  99. 99. Patterns of Population Growth In the United States, there are nearly equal numbers of people in each age group. This age structure diagram predicts a slow but steady growth rate for the near future. Males Females 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 Percentage of Population 80+ 60–64 20–24 0–4 40–44 Age(years) U.S. Population
  100. 100. In Rwanda, there are many more young children than teenagers, and many more teenagers than adults. This age structure diagram predicts a population that will double in about 30 years. 80+ 60–64 20–24 0–4 Age(years) Males Females Rwandan Population 40–44 Percentage of Population
  101. 101. Future Population Growth •To predict human population growth, demographers must consider the age structure of each country, as well as the prevalence of life-threatening diseases. •If growing countries move toward the demographic transition, growth rate may level off or decrease.
  102. 102. Future Population Growth
  103. 103. Ecologists suggest that if growth does not slow down, there could be serious damage to the environment and global economy. Economists assert that science, technology, and changes in society may control the negative impact of population growth.
  104. 104. 3–2 The main source of energy for life on Earth is a. organic chemical compounds. b. inorganic chemical compounds. c. sunlight. d. producers.
  105. 105. 3–2 Organisms that feed on plant and animal remains and other dead matter are a. detritivores. b. carnivores. c. herbivores. d. autotrophs.
  106. 106. 3–2 How does a food web differ from a food chain? a. A food web contains a single series of energy transfers. b. A food web links many food chains together. c. A food web has only one trophic level. d. A food web shows how energy passes from producer to consumer.
  107. 107. 3–2 In a biomass pyramid, the base of the pyramid represents the mass of a. heterotrophs. b. primary consumers. c. producers. d. top level carnivores.
  108. 108. 3–2 The amount of energy represented in each trophic level of consumers in an energy pyramid is about a. 10% of the level below it. b. 90% of the level below it. c. 10% more than the level below it. d. 90% more than the level below it.
  109. 109. 3–3 Transpiration is part of the a. water cycle. b. carbon cycle. c. nitrogen cycle. d. phosphorus cycle.
  110. 110. 3–3 Carbon is found in the atmosphere in the form of a. carbohydrates. b. carbon dioxide. c. calcium carbonate. d. ammonia.
  111. 111. 3–3 Biologists describe nutrients as moving through cycles because the substances a. start as simple organic forms that plants need. b. provide “building blocks” and energy that organisms need. c. are passed between organisms and the environment and then back to organisms. d. are needed by organisms to carry out life processes.
  112. 112. 3–3 The only organisms that can convert nitrogen in the atmosphere into a form useful to living things are nitrogen-fixing a. plants. b. bacteria. c. detritivores. d. animals.
  113. 113. 3–3 When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient, the result is a. runoff. b. algal death. c. algal bloom. d. less primary productivity.
  114. 114. 5-1 Population density is the number of individuals a. that are born each year. b. per unit area. c. that immigrate. d. that emigrate.
  115. 115. 5-1 When the birthrate of a population exceeds its death rate, the population a. decreases. b. increases. c. stays the same. d. increases then decreases.
  116. 116. 5-1 An S-shaped curve on a graph of population growth is characteristic of a. exponential growth. b. logistic growth. c. carrying capacity. d. delayed growth.
  117. 117. 5-1 Exponential growth in a population slows down or stops as a. resources become limited. b. rate of immigration increases. c. rate of emigration decreases. d. birth rate increases.
  118. 118. 5-1 Exponential growth rate means that each new generation of a population a. adds the same number of new individuals as the previous generation did. b. increases at the same rate as the previous generation. c. is the same size as the generation before. d. increases by a varying amount.
  119. 119. 5-2 A limiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways regardless of their size might be a. drought. b. disease. c. predation. d. crowding.
  120. 120. 5-2 Which of the following would be a limiting factor affecting the panda population of China? a. programs that educate people about endangered species b. capture of some pandas for placement in zoos c. laws protecting habitat destruction d. a disease that kills bamboo plants
  121. 121. 5-2 Density-dependent factors operate most strongly when a population is a. large and dense. b. large but sparse. c. small and sparse. d. small, but growing.
  122. 122. 5-2 Within a limited area, if the population of a predator increases, the population of its prey is likely to a. increase. b. decrease. c. remain about the same. d. become extinct.
  123. 123. 5-2 Which of the following is a density- independent factor affecting populations? a. predation b. disease c. a destructive hurricane d. parasites
  124. 124. 5-3 The size of the human population began to increase exponentially after the a. bubonic plague. b. development of plowing and irrigation. c. Industrial Revolution. d. development of the first cities.
  125. 125. 5-3 Which of the following is NOT a potential limiting factor of human population growth? a. famine b. medicine c. war d. disease
  126. 126. 5-3 After the demographic transition is complete, a population a. grows rapidly. b. grows slowly. c. begins a period of rapid decline. d. stays about the same size as time passes.
  127. 127. 5-3 An age-structure diagram shows a breakdown of a population by a. location and age group. b. age group and gender. c. birthrate and death rate. d. age group and emigration rate.
  128. 128. 5-3 Since the mid-1960s, the average annual growth rate of the human population has a. remained about the same. b. failed to show a consistent pattern. c. increased. d. decreased.