Reflection human body-powerpoint


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Reflection human body-powerpoint

  1. 1. • We are amazingly designed o structure relates to function o highly organized o even the simplest of parts or actions is incredibly complex o all parts must act together
  2. 2. • We are bilaterally symmetric o one line divides us into two mirror image halves• We are bipedal o designed to walk upright on two legs
  3. 3. • We are complex, even at our simplest levels o Cells = basic structural units of living things o Tissues = groups of cells united to perform a certain function o Organs = various tissues grouped together to carry out a function o Systems = organs working together
  4. 4. • Cells o Comprised of  membranes – which hold contents in and control substances going in/out  organelles – tiny organ-like parts that act like machines, doing the processes of the cell
  5. 5. cytoplasm – jelly-like semi-fluid environment for theorganelles; allows substancesto be moved around
  6. 6. o Types of  Nerve cells = neurons  cell body  dendrites – carry impulses into the cell  axon – carries impulse away from the cell
  7. 7. Striated (striped) musclecells  Skeletal muscle cells • voluntary  Cardiac (heart) muscle cells • involuntary
  8. 8. Smooth (visceral) musclecells  line the walls of internal organs, blood vessels, ducts  involuntary
  9. 9.  Bone cells (osteocytes)  minerals (like calcium and phosphorus) and salts make a matrix that is interwoven with a protein called collagen
  10. 10.  Red blood cells  no nucleus  biconcave disks  carry oxygen using a substance called hemoglobin
  11. 11.  White blood cells  formed in bone marrow and lymph glands  form part of body’s defense against microorganisms  phagocytosis = cell-eating • devour “enemy” cells
  12. 12. • Tissues o Types of  Connective tissue  Functions: connects, supports, transports, protects  Examples: bone, cartilage, blood, fat
  13. 13.  Epithelial tissue  Covers organs and lines cavities -- absorbs, secretes, protects  skin, lining of digestive tract
  14. 14.  Muscular tissue  contracts for movement Nervous tissue  conducts electrochemical impulses  brain, spinal cord, sensory receptors
  15. 15. • Functions: o Gives the body shape & support o Helps the body move o Protects vital organs o Produces blood cells o Stores minerals (calcium & phosphorus)
  16. 16. • There are 2 general divisions of the skeleton: o the axial skeleton includes the head, neck, and trunk o the appendicular skeleton includes the arms, legs, shoulders, and hips
  17. 17. • There are a total of 206 bones in the average adult skeleton o 29 bones in the skull  the cranium is the name given to the group of bones that encloses the brain  the mandible (jawbone) is the only moveable bone in the skull
  18. 18. the nasal bones make up the“bridge” of the nose  the remainder of the nose is comprised of cartilage
  19. 19. o 26 bones in the vertebral column  7 cervical vertebrae in the neck  12 thoracic vertebrae which connect to the ribs  5 lumbar vertebrae of the lower back
  20. 20.  the sacral and coccyx vertebrae are fused groups of vertebrae  the coccyx is sometimes called the “tailbone” there are 4 curves in the vertebral column  curves increase support
  21. 21. o 25 bones in the thorax  sternum (breastbone)  12 pairs of ribs  7 pairs connect directly to sternum by cartilage = “true” ribs
  22. 22. o 64 bones in upper limbs  clavicle (collarbone) and scapula (shoulder blade) form the “girdle” or support for arm  humerus = upper arm bone  two bones of the lower arm – ulna on pinky side, radius on thumb side
  23. 23.  wrist is made up of 8 bones known as the carpals metacarpals = bones of the palm  1 for each finger phalanges = finger bones  3 in each finger, 2 in thumb
  24. 24. o 62 bones in the lower limbs  fused bones of the pelvis make up the girdle that supports the leg  femur = thigh bone  two lower leg bones – larger bone out front is the tibia, behind is the fibula
  25. 25.  the knee joint is protected by the patella (kneecap) the 7 bones that form the heel and part of the ankle are the tarsals metatarsals = bones of instep  arched for support phalanges = toe bones
  26. 26. • Joints are where two or more bones join together o some do not allow any movement (like in the skull) o some allow only slight movement (like between vertebrae) o many are freely moveable
  27. 27.  ball-and-socket joints = allow bones to swing in nearly any direction  shoulders, hips hinge joints = allow movement in just one direction  elbow, knee, fingers
  28. 28.  pivot joints = where one bone rests and rotates on another  neck gliding joints = when two bones that can move separately meet  wrist
  29. 29. • Bones are held together by strong bands of tissue called ligaments. o Tendons connect muscle to bone.• Cartilage is a tissue that acts as a cushion between bones and at the ends of bones.
  30. 30. • Functions: o provides movement  of skeleton  of internal materials o maintains posture o produces heat
  31. 31. • Types of muscles o Voluntary (skeletal) = controlled by conscious thinking o Involuntary (smooth & cardiac) = function without conscious thought
  32. 32. • Muscle terms o atrophy = wasting away due to a lack of use  muscular dystrophy – a disorder that causes irreversible atrophy o hypertrophy = muscle growth due to excessive use
  33. 33. o muscle ache = feeling of tiredness or pain resulting from working muscleso muscle cramp = sudden muscle contraction causing severe paino muscle spasm = repeated involuntary contraction of a muscle
  34. 34. o muscle tone = how in/out of shape a muscle iso reflex = an involuntary response to a stimulus  sneeze, pupil size, blink
  35. 35. • Muscle groups o Facial  masseter = used for chewing  frontalis = moves eyebrows o Torso  pectorals = chest  abdominals = 4 sets, protect internal organs, “core”
  36. 36. o Neck & back  sternocleidomastoid = front of neck, turns head  trapezius = back of neck  latissimus dorsi = large, lower back muscle
  37. 37. o Arms  deltoid = “caps” arm at shoulder  biceps brachii = front of upper arm  triceps brachii = back of upper arm
  38. 38. o Legs  quadriceps = four muscles of upper thigh (front)  hamstrings = three muscles of upper thigh (back)  gastronemius = calf muscle  gluteus maximus = large muscle in rear, for walking
  39. 39. • Includes the skin, hair, nails, and glands.• Functions: o protection – against invaders, UV radiation, and drying out o temperature regulation o sensory reception o vitamin D production
  40. 40. o Epidermis = outer layer  composed mainly of older/dead skin cellso Dermis = lower layer  contains glands, blood vessels, and nerveso Subcutaneous layer  not part of skin, mostly fat
  41. 41. o Sweat glands – cool the body by excreting sweat through poreso Oil glands – keep hair and skin protectedo Hair – protects skin  shaft = part that is seen  root = part not seen
  42. 42. • Also called the circulatory system• Functions: o transport to cells  oxygen, nutrients, chemicals o transport from cells  waste, chemicals o defense against disease
  43. 43. • Structures: o heart  just larger than fist-sized  slightly to left of center, between lungs  double pump  both left and right sides pump blood
  44. 44. • right side pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs• left side pumps oxygenated blood to cells throughout body
  45. 45.  top chambers, called atria, receive blood bottom chambers, called ventricles, pump valves keep blood from flowing backwards  between chambers  entrance to great vessels
  46. 46. o vessels  arteries carry blood away from heart  aorta = largest artery  veins carry blood to heart  pulmonary veins carry blood from lungs
  47. 47.  capillaries connect arterioles (small arteries) and venules (small veins) at cells• Pulse = number of heartbeats per minute o feel recoil of arteries at “pulse points”  radial, carotid, temporal
  48. 48. • Functions: o controls all the functions of the body o relays messages back and forth to different parts of the body o sensory input
  49. 49. • Main organs: o brain  biggest part = cerebrum  85% of the brains weight  the thinking, reasoning, remem bering part of the brain  controls voluntary muscles
  50. 50.  two halves • right = abstract things like music, colors, and shapes • left = analytical, helping you with math, logic, and speech
  51. 51.  right half of the cerebrum controls the left side of your body, and the left half controls the right side cerebellum  at the back of the brain, below the cerebrum
  52. 52.  controls balance, movement, and coordination brain stem  sits beneath the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum
  53. 53.  connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord in charge of all the functions your body needs to stay alive • control your involuntary muscles: pumping blood, breathing air, digesting food, etc.
  54. 54. o spinal cord  long bundle of nerves within the vertebral column  carries messages between brain and spinal nerveso nerves  pathway of neurons
  55. 55. transmits messages byelectrochemical impulses  sensory nerves carry impulses to brain  motor nerves carry impulses to muscles
  56. 56. • Functions: o allows oxygen in the air to be taken into the body o enables the body to get rid of carbon dioxide from the body o filters, warms, and humidifies inhaled air
  57. 57. • Path of inhaled air: o The two openings of the airway (the nasal cavity and the mouth) meet at the pharynx, or throat. o The epiglottis, a small flap of tissue, covers the air-only passage when we swallow, keeping food and liquid from going into our lungs.
  58. 58. o The larynx , or voice box, is the uppermost part of the air-only passage.  contains a pair of vocal cords, which vibrate to make soundso The trachea, or windpipe, extends downward from the base of the larynx.
  59. 59. o The trachea divides into left and right air tubes called bronchi, which connect to the lungs.o Within the lungs, the bronchi branch into smaller bronchi and even smaller tubes called bronchioles.
  60. 60. o Bronchioles end in tiny air sacs called alveoli .  where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place• The lungs also contain elastic tissues that allow them to inflate and deflate without losing shape and are encased by a thin lining called the pleura.
  61. 61. • Functions: o Brings in food (ingestion) o Breaks food down to usable form (digestion) o Gets food to circulatory system for transport to cells (absorption) o Gets rid of waste (egestion)
  62. 62. • Pathway of food o Mouth  begins process of digestion  Teeth = make food pieces smaller  incisors cut, canines tear, premolars & molars grind
  63. 63.  Salivary glands = secrete saliva  3 pairs  moisten food  start digestion of starches Tongue = prepare food for swallowing  makes a bolus (ball of food)
  64. 64. o Pharynxo Esophagus  lies behind trachea  peristalsis = involuntary muscular movements move food to stomacho Stomach  breaks down food into chyme (semi-liquid)
  65. 65. Accessory organs = producesubstances that are added tothe digestive process  Liver – secretes bile • helps breakdown fats  Gallbladder – stores bile  Pancreas – secretes digestive juices
  66. 66. o Small intestine  most digestion occurs here  nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream here  lined with villi & microvilli  increases surface area
  67. 67. o Large Intestine  larger in circumference, shorter in length than small intestine  removes excess water from undigested foodo Rectum  stores waste until exit through anus
  68. 68. • Functions o Removes waste from blood o Excretes waste from body  through sweating  through expiration  through elimination
  69. 69. • Organs o Kidneys  remove waste products from the blood o Ureters  drain waste from kidneys o Urinary bladder
  70. 70.  collects and holds urine until it is removed from the body  can stretch to hold about 1 qt. of fluido Urethra  tube from bladder that carries urine to outside
  71. 71.  Other organs  lungs = remove CO2 & H2 O  skin = through perspiration gives off water & metabolic wastes  liver = cleans waste particles from the blood
  72. 72. • Functions o controls functions within body o communicates changes within body o maintains stability within body• Facts o functions through chemical messengers = hormones
  73. 73. o endocrine glands are ductless  no tubes  secrete directly into bloodstream  sweat glands have tubes, for example and are considered EXOcrine glands
  74. 74. • Organs o Pituitary gland  the “master” gland  helps regulate activity of other glands  found within brain  produces growth hormone
  75. 75. o Thyroid gland  located in front of the trachea and below the larynx  “bow tie”  secretes hormones that regulate growth and energy usage
  76. 76. o Pancreas  left side of center, near stomach  secretes insulin, made by the Islets of Langerhans  regulates the amount of sugar in the blood
  77. 77. o Adrenal glands  located on top of each kidney  produce adrenaline (epinephrine)  heart rate and force are increased, blood pressure rises, and blood flow to the skeletal and cardiac muscles is increased
  78. 78. o Reproductive glands  Ovaries in females  produce estrogen  Testes in males  produce testosterone