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Southeast asian music grade 8 first quarter


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Southeast asian music grade 8 first quarter

  1. 1. Laos Cambodia Thailand Singapore Indonesia Vietnam Malaysia Quiz Myanmar
  2. 2. CAMBODIA
  3. 3. Cambodia - officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia
  4. 4. Cambodia -one of the most beautiful countries in Southeast Asia. It is also known as Kâmpŭchéa. It was the center of the Khmer (Cambodian) kingdom of Angkor, a great empire that dominated Southeast Asia for 600 years.
  5. 5. Angkor Wat was first a Hindu, then subsequently a Buddhist, temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world.
  6. 6. Phnom Penh - (literally, "Penh's Hill") takes its name from the present Wat Phnom ("Hill Temple"). -It is the capital and largest city of Cambodia.
  7. 7. Cambodian music gained a world-wide reputation in the 1960s until the dramatic political problems in Cambodia. Art music is highly influenced by ancient forms as well as Hindu forms. Cambodian court music is roughly similar to that of Java, Indonesia. They feature choruses with large orchestras based on struck keys and gongs. Cambodian people also absorbed and adopted Indian, Chinese, European, and other cultures to suit their own traditions and tastes that resulted in a distinct Cambodian culture.
  8. 8. The Pinpeat is a Cambodian musical ensemble or an orchestra that usually accompanies ceremonial music of the royal courts and temples. Music is always part of their court dances, masked plays, shadow plays, and religious ceremonies. This group is similar to the Piphat ensemble of Thailand and usually consists of nine or ten instruments.
  9. 9. Pinpeat Ensemble Skorthom Samphor Kongvong Oneat Chhing
  10. 10. INDONESIA
  11. 11. Indonesia is an archipelago in Southeast Asia comprising approximately 17,500 islands. With over 238 million people, Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous country and is the fourth biggest nation of the world. Through interaction with other cultures such as Indian, Arabic, Chinese and European, a wide range of musical styles has been developed. Today the contemporary music of Indonesia is popular not only in the region but also in the neighbouring countries.
  12. 12. BOROBUDUR (BALI, INDONESIA) - the world's largest Buddhist temple
  13. 13. Borobudur, or Barabudur, is a 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist Te n Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.
  16. 16. Bromo-Tengger-Semeru National Park, East Jav
  17. 17. nah Lot Temple, Bali
  18. 18. Volcanoes in Indonesia
  19. 19. Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦗ) is an island of Indonesia. With a population roughly equal to Russia as of 2014, (excluding the 3.7 million on the island of Madura which is administered as part of the province of East Java), Java is the world's most populous island, and one of the most densely populated places in the world. Java is the home of 57 percent of the Indonesian population. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on western Java.
  20. 20. Jakarta Capital of Indonesia Jakarta, officially known as the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia, and one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.
  22. 22. Bali Island in Indonesia Bali is an island and province of Indonesia, and includes a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida.
  25. 25. Yogyakarta City in Indonesia Yogyakarta is a city and the capital of Yogyakarta Special Region in Java, Indonesia. It is renowned as a centre of classical Javanese fine art and culture such as batik, ballet, drama, music, poetry, and puppet shows.
  27. 27. Surabaya City in Indonesia Surabaya is Indonesia's second-largest city with a population of over 3.1 million, and the capital of the province of East Java.
  28. 28. There are two basic kinds of Indonesian music scale: • Slendro – five (5) equidistant tones in octave • Peloq – heptatonic (7) tone scale with semi tone Both vocal and instrumental music in Indonesia use slendro and peloq scales. Polyphonic stratification kind of melody is a result of hocket/Interlock. Interlocking is a common technique used in gong ensembles. Irama – is an Indonesian term for tempo
  29. 29. Gamelan The Gamelan or Gamelan orchestra is the most popular form of music in Indonesia. There are many types of Gamelan but the famous Javanese and Balinese Gamelan are the most famous. It contains a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, kendang and gongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked strings.
  30. 30. Gamelan Orchestra
  31. 31. Vocal music is used as ornamentation of the Gamelan. It is as important as gamelan. 1. Pesindhen is a female soloist singer who sings with a Gamelan 2. Gerong refers to the unison male chorus that sings with the gamelan
  32. 32. • Used for sacred music • Consist of metallo- phone, mostly gongs • Sudden change of tempo and dynamics • Sounds are very bright and brilliant • Used fast and rattling sounds of cymbals • Used for court music • Percussion dominated • Style of playing gives solemn character CHARACTERISTICS JAVANESE GAMELAN BALINESE GAMELAN
  33. 33. MALAYSIA
  34. 34. Malaysia is a federation of 13 states in Southeast Asia, formed in 1963.
  35. 35. Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia. It is divided into two regions: 1. West Malaysia – also known as Peninsular Malaysia 2. East Malaysia consists of thirteen states and three federal territories. Chinese and Indian cultural influences made their mark when trade began in the country. Trading also increased when immigrants flocked to Malaysia. The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, which plays a large role in developing their culture. The constitution declares Islam the state religion while protecting freedom of religion.
  36. 36. Kuala Lumpur -is the federal capital and most populous city in Malaysia.
  37. 37. KUALA LUMPUR
  38. 38. Petronas Twin Towers The tallest twin towers in the world
  39. 39. Multi-racial groups that influenced Malaysia’s music genre: 1. Malay 2. Chinese 3. Indian 4. Iban 5. Dayak 6. Kadazandusun 7. Eurasians
  40. 40. Malaysian music is largely based around percussion instruments. It has multi-cultural influence and is believed to have originated in the Kelantan-Pattani region with a mixture of Indian, Chinese, Thai, and Indonesian influences.
  41. 41. The music of Malaysia may be categorized into two types: 1. Classical and Folk music emerged during the pre colonial period and still exists in the form of vocal, dance, and theatrical music. 2. Syncretic or Acculturated music developed during the post-Portuguese period (16th century). It contains elements from both local music and foreign elements of Arabian, Persian, Indian, Chinese, and Western musical and theatrical sources.
  42. 42. Malaysian Musical Instruments Musical instruments of Malaysia are greatly associated with their culture and roots. Due to colonization, the stages of development of Malaysian instruments are great. They share some common features with Indian musical instruments. After the colonization of Malaysia by the British, the musical development was influenced by Western music.
  43. 43. Musical ensembles and types of performances in Malaysia: 1. Agung and Kulintang This is a gong-based musical ensemble commonly used in funerals and weddings in East Malaysia. This type of ensemble is similar to the kulintang of the Philippines, Brunei, and Indonesia.
  44. 44. 2. Kertok This is a musical ensemble from the Malay Peninsula that consists of xylophones played swiftly and rhythmically in traditional Malay functions.
  45. 45. 3. Dikir Barat This is a type of musical form that is important to Malaysia’s national culture. It is performed by singing in groups and often in a competitive manner usually with percussion instrumental accompaniment or sometimes without instruments at all.
  46. 46. 4. Silat Melayu This is a form of martial art that is similar to t’ai chi. It originated in the Malay Peninsula since the Christian Era and is a mixture of martial arts, dance, and music usually accompanied by gongs, drums, and Indian oboes.
  47. 47. MYANMAR (BURMA)
  48. 48. Burma - officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, commonly shortened to Myanmar
  49. 49. Myanmar was known as Burma until 1989. When the country’s name was officially changed by the military government that took over in 1988. Early civilization in Myanmar dates back to the 1st century with archaeological evidences of the Pyu Kingdoms of Thayekhittaya (Sri Ksetra), Beithano (Visnu), and Hanlin.
  50. 50. The capital of Myanmar, Yangon (Rangoon) is known for the most famous stupa in the country, the Shwedagon Pagoda, along with a temple complex around it.
  51. 51. SCHWEDAGO- These stupas are a couple thousand years older than th city itself. The name comes from «Shwe» (Burmese for "gold") and «Dagon» (previously this settlement was situated where the modern Yangon now exists).
  52. 52. The music of Myanmar (or Burma) has similarities with many other musical traditions in the region, including Chinese music and Thai music, probably because its longest land border is shared with China. So, Cambodia has the Pinpeat ensemble while Indonesia has the Javanese and Balinese gamelans. However, the Indonesian gamelans have singers performing with them.
  53. 53. Myanmar’s musical instruments are categorized into 2 types, the loud sounding and soft sounding. The loud sounding instruments are performed in open-air ensembles at ceremonies and festivals. Most of the Hsaing Waing instruments belong to the loud sounding category.
  54. 54. The Hsaing Waing is Myanmar’s traditional folk music ensemble. It is made up mainly of different gongs and drums as well as other instruments depending on the nature of the performance.
  55. 55. For more formal and classical performances that are performed indoors, the ensemble may be accompanied by the saung gauk the national instrument of (13- string angular harp with soft sound) Myanmar, the pattala (Burmese xylophone), or the piano and violin, both introduced during colonial rule.
  56. 56. SAUNG GAUK Myanmar Harp
  57. 57. hsaing waing (also spelt saing waing) is a traditional Burmese folk musical ensemble, consisting of a number of different gongs and drums, as well as other instruments, depending on the nature of the performance. These include the hne (a double reed pipe), pat waing (a set of 21 drums in a circle), kyi waing (small bronze gongs in a circular frame), maung hsaing (larger bronze gongs in a rectangular frame), as well as chauk lon pat (a set of 8 tuned drums), and si and wa (bell and clapper).For more formal and classical performances, the ensemble may be accompanied by the saung gauk, the Burmese harp, the pattala, a Burmese xylophone, or the piano and violin, both introduced during colonial rule. Hsaing waing musicians use a hemitonic and anhemitonic scale similar to the one used by Indonesian gamelan musicians.
  58. 58. hne (a double reed pipe) pat waing (a set of 21 drums in a circle) kyi waing (small bronze gongs in a circular frame) maung hsaing (larger bronze gongs in a rectangular frame) chauk lon pat (a set of 8 tuned drums) Other instruments in the Hsaing Waing are the:
  59. 59. The "H'ne" is a multiple reed oboe with a remarkable crooked form. It knows seven nearly equidistant playing holes which were basic for the development of the main Burmese scales in both chamber and ensemble music.
  60. 60. The two common sizes "ci" (big) and "kalei" (small) are used for different purposes, the bigger one for slow tempi and more dignity, the latter one for festival occasions. There are attempts to compare this instrument to other reed areophones like the Chinese "Suona" or even more the Indian "Xaranai", and regarding the fact that Burma borders both countries and always was visited on several ancient trade roads, this might be not really false
  61. 61. The center of each Burmese ensemble, giving name to the idea of instruments hung up in a circle "hsain wain", is the "pat wain" drum circle. The traditional instrument knows 19, today (after 1920) 21 tuned drums with a height from 13 to 41 cm, hung down from a circeling wooden rack or stand with the player in the middle. The drums get tuned by filling in "pa sa", a paste of rice and ashes. The more "pa sa" is isnerted, the lower sounds the drum.
  62. 62. The "pat wain" player is known as "hsain hsaya", which means he is the "master of hsain" and thus the main leader and director of the complete ensemble. Actually, the "pat wain" also appears as a part of the "zat pwe" shows, where theatre versions of the "mahagita" (book of songs) get performed with interesting duets and antiphones between singers and the drum circle.
  63. 63. Pat Wain
  64. 64. Also known as the pat waing. Ornately carved wooden frames are arranged in a circle, and a set of tuned drums, between 19 and 23 in total, are suspended inside. The player sits in the center of the frame and uses both hands to strike the drums, producing a melody. The drums are tuned by applying a paste made from rice and ash to the center of the drumheads.
  65. 65. Kyi Waing (left), Maung Hsaing (right)__
  66. 66. The kyi waing comprises a series of gongs arranged in a circular frame, and the maung hsaing of gongs in a rectangular frame.
  67. 67. The brass cymbals "si"(left), which sometimes get replaced by the bigger "yakwin", are held in the right hand of the vocalist. In his/her left hand she/he holds the wooden "wa" which appear in the shape of castagnets or a bamboo node slit open (right). Both provide the basic patterns of a tune: All accents are performed by the "wa" while the "si" gets used on weak or unaccented notes. Each pattern is strictly linked to a melodical phrase or passage and often counts up to 9 or 16 bars. Like in the Gamelan ensembles with the last gong, the final stroke of the "wa" is getting delayed as much as possible.
  68. 68. maung hsaing (larger bronze gongs in a rectangular frame)
  69. 69. THAILAND
  70. 70. Thailand Formerly known as Siam, Thailand is known for being the sole nation in Southeast Asia that has never been ruled by a Western power. It is for this reason that the country is also called “Muang Thai,” which means “Land of the Free.”
  71. 71. Formerly known as Siam, Thailand is known for being the sole nation in Southeast Asia that has never been ruled by a Western power. It is for this reason that the country is also called “Muang Thai,” which means “Land of the Free.” History and geography indicates that Thai music is a conglomeration of Asian influences.
  72. 72. Bangkok is the capital and the most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep.
  73. 73. Ayutthaya Ruins
  74. 74. Its musical principles and elements are basically derived from Chinese music, while its musical instruments are inspired from the Indian and Indonesian strings and gong-chimes. The Thais combined and adapted these to their culture and created their own unique music. Music is theoretically based on the five-tone or seven-tone scale system. It is not only confined to the royal courts but is also used extensively in dance, theatre, and in ceremonies. Thai folk music consists of simple songs with simple melodic lines. Its main focus in singing is the articulation of the text rather than the style or technique of execution. Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, and Malaysia have instrumental ensembles and vocal music.
  75. 75. Songs of Thailand have inherently poetic lyrics which allow a singer or performer to easily define the melodic lines. It provides the singer the opportunity to improvise song text to suit the given occasion. The interpretation of a singer gives meaning to the sacred and spiritual essence of songs with free rhythm while melodies may either be interpreted or written in the high or low register with long or short durations.
  76. 76. Thailand has three primary instrumental ensembles that are similar to the other ensembles in Southeast Asia. 1. Piphat - It is a mid-sized orchestra that is performed in either outdoor style with hard mallets or indoor style with padded mallets. This ensemble has different types but the highly ornate one is traditionally associated with funerals and cremation ceremonies. Other versions of the piphat ensemble are used to accompany specific forms of traditional Thai drama such as the large shadow puppet theatre (nang yai) and the khon dance drama.
  77. 77. 2. Khrueang Sai – It is an orchestra that combines some of the percussion and wind instruments of the Piphat with an expanded string section. This group is primarily used for indoor performances and for the accompaniment of stick- puppet theater
  78. 78. 3. Mahori – This ensemble is traditionally played by women in the courts of Central Thailand and Cambodia. Because of this, instruments for this ensemble are historically smaller. However, regular-sized instruments are used today. A vocalist performing with the Mahori is usually accompanied by the so sam sai.
  79. 79. Ranat is Thai xylophone. It has 21 or 22 wooden bars suspended by cords over a boat-shaped trough resonator, and is played with two mallets. It is used as a leading instrument in the piphat ensemble.
  80. 80. The Khong Wong Lek is a gong circled used in Thai classical music. It has 18 tuned bossed gongs.
  81. 81. The Taphon is a traditional drum of Thailand. It is barrel-shaped, with two heads, and is played by the hands and fingers of both hands.
  82. 82. Klong That is a drum that provides rhythm in Piphat Ensemble.
  83. 83. The Ching are small bowl-shaped finger cymbals of thick and heavy bronze, with a broad rim commonly used in Cambodia and Thailand.
  84. 84. The Thon, a small goblet drum is also used in Thai traditional music. The drum is made of lathe-spun wood which is covered with goat skin.
  85. 85. SINGAPORE
  86. 86. Republic of Singapore.
  87. 87. Singapore’s cultural life reflects its colonization by the British Empire and its diverse population. Being the melting pot of different cultures in Asia, folk music of this country reflects the culture and traditions of specific groups.
  88. 88. The ethnic groups which made a prominent place in the musical world of Singapore have been Chinese, Indian Malays, and Tamils. Other minority Asian ethnic groups which have also made a mark in the folk culture of Singapore are the Cantonese, Hokkien, and Malay Bangwasan.
  89. 89. Through the years, the music industry in Singapore grew having Western-influenced performances by the Singapore Symphony Orchestra as well as ethnic music performances mainly by the Singapore Chinese Orchestra. Other performing groups with Malay and Indian influence are still prevalent until today.
  90. 90. LAOS
  91. 91. Laos,-officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma and People's Republic of China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west. Its population was estimated to be around 6.5 million in 2012.
  92. 92. This country is an independent state of Southeast Asia and officially known as Lao People’s Democratic Republic. It is formerly part of the Indochinese Union, also known as French Indochina. Wat Pha That Luang, Vientiane is one of its famous landmarks.
  93. 93. Pha That Luang (Lao for "Great Stupa") is a gold-covered Buddhist stupa in Ventiane, Laos. The Lao people say it was originally built as a Hindu temple in the 3rd century.
  94. 94. Xieng Khuan (Buddha Park) near Vientiane, Laos
  95. 95. The classical music and dance of Laos is highly influences by India, Cambodia, and Thailand. Themes are drawn from Hindu mythology, the Buddhist Jatakatales, and local legends.
  96. 96. The royal entourage of Lao kings traditionally included musicians, and a typical orchestra improvised songs with sets of tuned gongs, xylophones, a bamboo flute, and other wind instruments. The Lao orchestra can be divided into two categories: 1. Sep Nyai - This is similar to the Piphat of Thailand with instruments that are strictly percussive but also integrates the use of an oboe. 2. Sep Noi – This is also known as the Mahori of Thailand. However, it incorporates the use of several Khene which is a large bamboo mouth organ and is the most popular folk music instrument of Laos.
  97. 97. Traditional music, called Mor lam, is largely based around the khene.
  98. 98. VIETNAM
  99. 99. Vietnam - officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
  100. 100. Vietnam is officially known as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. This country is located on the eastern coast of the Indochinese Peninsula. Vietnamese music (nhạc Việt Nam) refers to the ethnic music that originated from the "Kinh" people of Vietnam. This term is also used to address the music of any of the numerous ethnic minorities including the Montagnard, Degar, Tay, Cham, and others. Although Vietnam is geographically part of Southeast Asia, ten centuries of rule by the Chinese to the north have made the culture much closer to Far East than to its Southeast Asian neighbors. Thus, early music theory was either based upon or adapted to the prevailing Chinese theory, and the majority of instruments used in the royal court were of Chinese origin. On the other hand, other influences can be seen with the ethnic minorities, such as the Chàm or Montagnard peoples. This is possibly due to interaction with the other countries of Southeast Asia. Vietnamese music shows signs of Indian influences, noticeable in improvisation preludes of chamber music (known as rao in the South and dao in the north) as well as usage of onomatopoeia in drum playing.
  101. 101. Hanoi - is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city
  102. 102. Hanoi- Capital City
  103. 103. Thien Mu Pagoda
  104. 104. Hue Monument
  105. 105. Halong Bay
  106. 106. Cao Dai Temple This temple was founded in the year 1920 and since then has become one of the most important historical places in the country. The temple is a fusion of the teachings from different religions, including Confucianism, Islam, Taoism, Christianity and Buddhism and this particular religion now enjoys over 3 million followers in the country.
  107. 107. Traditional and Folk Music Vietnamese traditional music can be separated into a few major categories, divided predominantly by the way in which were used in the people's cultural lives.
  108. 108. Categories of Vietnamese Music: 1. Imperial court music – The most popular of this kind is the Nha nhac that was popularly performed during the Tran Dynasty to the Nguyen Dynasty. This form of classical music is also performed in honour of the gods and scholars in temples. Other classical music falling into this category include the Dai Nhac (“great music”) and the Tieu Nhac (“small music”) which was performed as chamber music for the king.
  109. 109. 2. Folk music - This category is extremely diverse because it includes music performed both indoors and outdoors. Performers of this category are also diverse. They may be professional musicians down to the blind artists in the streets who perform to earn their living. Vietnamese folk music are performed in different occasions depending on its sub-category. It may be performed in musical theaters, streets, courtship rituals, and ceremonies for invoking spirits. They are sometimes also influenced by Western elements. Some Vietnamese music only makes use of female singers and some have both male and female singers.
  110. 110. 3. Religious and Ceremonial music – This is music performed in religious rituals or at funerals.
  111. 111. Identify the capital of the following Southeast Asian countries. 1. Cambodia 6.Singapore 2. Laos 7. Malaysia 3. Myanmar 4. Thailand 5. Vietnam
  112. 112. Find out the country of origin of the following landmarks.
  113. 113. 1
  114. 114. 2
  115. 115. 3
  116. 116. 4
  117. 117. 5
  118. 118. 6
  119. 119. 7
  120. 120. Name the following instruments