- Ancient times belief explained that
disease is caused by a
supernatural being ( a God or a
dead ancestor), or a person with
special powers ( a witch or a
Poisonous Gas Belief
- Major beliefs during the 1800s.
explained that disease (such as
malaria) is caused by rotting
plants or bad vapour that came
Malaria- came from mala aria
meaning bad air.
-Holds that microscopic
responsible for infectious
Belief (Classic Agent)
- This belief explains disease as
a product of the complex
interaction among three factors
( agent, host and environment)
- referring to a practices
and etiquettes in
- Relating to poverty that
leads to a lack of accurate
education and information
about nutrition, hygiene
and disease management.
-referring to beliefs that
provide false sense of
security and delaying
healthcare and appropriate
Some superstitious beliefs.
• Taking a bath on Friday will
make one sick.
• Washing the eyes with the
first urine early in the
morningis an effctive cure for
• An amulet or anting-anting
protects the wearer from
diseases and helps counteract
• Relapsed or binat is caused by
eating certain kinds of food or
by cutting the hair soon after
- Referring to unsanitary conditions,
presence of toxic chemicals,
hazardous pollutants, extreme
weather condition that makes
people weaken and vulnerable to a
lots of infection.
- Referring to political issues, such
as corruption that affect the
provision of health care services
and resources to the people. In
many cases people’s health is not
given utmost priority.
- Disease transmission can also
be due to misinformation or lack
of information thus education is
crucial in disease prevention
INFECTIOUS AGENT/ CAUSATIVE
-disease-causing organisms.The greater
the organism's virulence (ability to grow
and multiply), invasiveness (ability to enter
tissue) and pathogenicity (ability to cause
disease), the greater the possibility that the
organism will cause an infection. Infectious
agents are bacteria, virus, fungi, and
• Small infectious agent that
replicates only inside the living
cells of other organisms.
• Infects all types of life forms.
• Requires intracellular
parasite (can’t survive
outside the host’s cell)
• On the borderline
between living and nonliving matter
• Can have varied shapes:
helical – like a coiled spring
icosahedrons – with 20 triangular
sides or a very complex shape.
• Attacks all kinds of biological agents,
• Consist of a bit of nucleic acid ( RNA
or DNA, but never both within a
Specific Disease Caused by a Virus
• AIDS- Acquired Immune Deficiency
• Common cold
• Dengue fever
• No true nucleus
• Can be aerobic (needs
oxygen) and anaerobic
(does not need oxygen)
• Can be spherical (coccus),
rod-shaped (bacillus), or
• Can be in pairs (diplo-), in
clusters (staphylo-), or in
• Majority comprise the
normal flora (live in the
• Majority are
• Can be opportunistic (friendly
bacteria turn harmful when the
immune system weakens)
• Causes disease by directly
attacking tissues or releasing
• Some can live in a dormant state
Specific Disease Caused by
PORTAL OF EXIT
A route or a place of exit providing a
way for a microorganism to leave the
reservoir. The common most mode of exits
are break in the skin, nose, mouth or anus
and special body openings such as vagina,
penis, urethra, ears and eyes.
It may be through the bite of mosquito
or needle prick.
This is a person who is vulnerable
to disease due to weak immunity or
a prior infection. Children and
elderly are more prone to a lot of
infections. Immunization is one way
to strengthen one’s immunity to
Patient Situation: 1
An elderly patient, hospitalized with a gastrointestinal
disorder, was on bed rest and required assistance for
activities of daily living. The patient had frequent
uncontrolled diarrhea stools and the nurse provided
excellent care to maintain cleanliness and comfort.
Following one episode of cleaning the patient and
changing the bed linen, the nurse immediately went to a
second patient to provide care. The nurse's hands were
not washed before assisting the second patient.
Infectious agent: Escherichia coli
Reservoir: Large intestine
E. coli, bacteria in the large intestine of humans forms the greater part of the normal
Portal of Exit : E. coli exited the body in feces.
Mode of Transmission: The nurse removed the contaminated linen from the bed. The E. coli
organism contaminated the hands of the nurse who then provided morning care to another
Portal of Entry: The second patient receiving care had a Foley catheter. The nurse
manipulated the tubing attached to the catheter. The E. coli organism on the nurse's hands
contaminated the catheter tubing and ascended to the patient's meatus and then into the
Susceptible Host: The second patient with a Foley catheter. This patient was elderly and
had a chronic illness necessitating complete bed rest. The Foley catheter contaminated by
the E. coli organism provided a direct route into the urinary bladder.
Patient Situation: 2
A patient assigned for morning care has an open wound on her left lower leg. The wound is
draining and when last cultured, the microorganism MRSA was identified.
In preparation for bedmaking, hands of the nurse were washed. Clean linen and a bag for
soiled linen were gathered from the linen room and placed on the patient's clean bedside
To remove the soiled linen from the bed, the following procedure was followed:
Each side of the soiled linen ends folded towards the middle of the bed
Soiled linen held away from the nurse's clean uniform
Soiled linen placed in the linen bag for later discard
Protective gloves removed
Infectious Agent: MRSA (Methicillin-resistant organism)
Reservoir: Patient's infected wound
Portal of Exit: Draining from the open wound
BREAK IN THE CHAIN = Nurse used proper hand
washing techniques, wore protective gloves and
properly handled the linen.
Mode of Transmission: MRSA commonly transferred on hands of the nurse by indirect contact
BREAK IN THE CHAIN =Proper hand washing, gloving and handling of linen
Portla of Entry: The nurse manipulated the tubing attached to the catheter.
BREAK IN THE CHAIN=Organisms isolated with use of medical asepsis and body substance
- This is the time from the entry
of germ to the appearance of
the first sign of symptom.This
can last from several hours to
several months or even years.
Early Symptom Stage
- This is when the general signs and
symptoms of the disease appear such
as fever, nasal discharge, and rashes. It
is the early stage of the battle between
the germs and the body.During this time
, the disease is higly contagious and
diagnosis is difficult at this stage.
- This is the height of the disease
when the infection is very severe.
During this period one is obviously
sick as characteristic signs and
symptoms of the disease appear.
- During this stage, there is a
gradual return to health as signs
and symptoms begin to
disappear.The body is now on its
way to recovery. However when the
body is unable to recover, disability
or death may result.
There are times when a person
experienced a relapsed or binat. It
happens when a sick person
partially recovers but goes back to
clinical stage.Recovery takes much
longer after a relapse because the
body defenses are still weak from a
-helps to contain infectious organisms and
to maintain an environment free from
contamination. Include hand washing,
gowning and wearing facial masks when
appropriate, as well as separating clean
from contaminated or potentially
contaminated materials and providing
information to patients about basic hygienic
-combine the major features of universal
precautions and body substance isolation.
These standard precautions alert the health
care worker to patient situations that require
special barrier techniques. These barrier
techniques are used when working with any
patient where potential or actualized contact
with blood or body fluid exists.
-help control contamination from
bloodborne viruses such as human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis
viruses. When in contact with a patient's
blood or any body secretion that may be
contaminated with blood, protective
measures such as wearing gloves, gown,
facial mask, and/or goggles must be.
Body Substance Isolation
-protects against bacterial organisms that may exist in
body substances. Body substance isolation applies in
all patient encounters regardless of the diagnosis.
The application of gloves for contact with moist body
surfaces and areas of nonintact skin, gowns when in
contact with body secretions, and facial mask when in
danger of contact with respiratory droplet secretions,
prevents the contamination of both health care worker