Arti dan sejarah io


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Arti dan sejarah io

  1. 1. Introduction toIndustrial-Organizational (I-O)Psychology – Chapter 1
  2. 2. Why Study I-O Psychology? Work Large chunk of the day Largest period of adult life Often governs where we live how we live people we associate withThe world of work and work behavior
  3. 3. What is I-O Psychology? Psychology study of behavior and mental processes(studi tentang proses mental dan tingkah laku) Industrial-Organizational Psychology study of behavior in work settings and the application ofpsychological principles to change work behavior(studi ttg. perilaku dlm seting dunia kerja, serta aplikasi prinsip2psikologi utk merubah perilaku kerja) one of many specialty areas of psychology(salah satu dari cabang/area spesialisasi psikologi)
  4. 4. Specialization within I-OPsychology Industrial selection training performance measurement Organizational development motivation job satisfaction and stress more ...
  5. 5. Scientist/Practitioner Model Scientific Objective study and understanding of all aspects of behavior at work conduct research publish results Applied Objective application of psychological principles and the knowledgegleaned from research deal with specific problems/issues
  6. 6. History - Industrial Psychology Wilhelm Wundt 1st Psychology Laboratory (1879) Early 1900’s Walter Dill Scott W.L. Bryan Industrial Psychology Frederick Taylor Scientific Management Frank & Lillian Gilbreth Efficiency Experts
  7. 7. Scientific Management Use of scientific principles to improveefficiency and productivity of jobs Principle objective to maximize the prosperity of the employer andeach employee Fundamental assumption interests of employees and employers are notantagonistic
  8. 8. Time-and-Motion Studies Procedures in which work tasks are brokendown into simple component movements andthe movements timed to develop a moreefficient method for performing the tasks often doubled, tripled or even quadrupled laboroutput revolutionized physical labor jobs in terms ofefficiency and productivity
  9. 9. History (continued) Hugo Munsterberg 1st book on psychology and industrialefficiency 1913 1st work simulation, Pittsburgh trolley drivers Max Weber classic book on bureaucracy World War I First wide spread use of testing in selection
  10. 10. World War I - testing Army Alpha intelligence test for selection and placement ofmilitary personnel (recruits) found over 1/4 of recruits were illiterate Army Beta non-verbal intelligence test for non-readingrecruitsFirst efforts at mass testing; lead the way for future testing efforts
  11. 11. 1924 Hawthorne Works ofWestern Electric A positive change in behavior occurs atthe onset of an intervention followed bygradual decline. Revealed the existence of informalemployee work groups and their influenceon production Identified the importance of employeeattitudes and the value of anunderstanding supervisor
  12. 12. The Hawthorne Effect Changes in behavior occur as a function ofone’s knowledge that they are beingobserved and their expectations concerningtheir role as a research participant
  13. 13. Human Relations Movement(Organizational Psychology) Based on the Hawthorne studies (by EltonMayo) that emphasizes the importance ofsocial factors (informal processes) ininfluencing work performance. Worker morale Co-worker relations Social sources of motivation, especially inrepetitive low level work
  14. 14. World War II(continued work begun in WW I) Army General Classification Test (AGCT) classified 12million soldiers based on ability to learn selection for officer training Pilot selection and training OSS (precursor to CIA) select spies based on situational tests intelligence, adaptability and creative thinking
  15. 15. Post World War II Specialty areas of I-O became more pronounced testing selection evaluation Defense industry growth spurred development engineering psychology human factors psychology ergonomics
  16. 16. 50’s Ohio State LeadershipStudies(Landmark in I-O) Structure task oriented leadership Consideration people oriented leadership Human Relations Movement (expanded) quality of work life job satisfaction
  17. 17. 1960’s through early 1990’s Research and practice of I-O flourished motivation goal setting job attitudes organizational stress group processes organizational power and politics organizational development
  18. 18. 1960’s Civil Rights andWomen’s Movements Legal changes - 1964 Civil Rights Act Emphasized fairness in employmentdecisions - Title VII Protects: race (ethnicity) color national origin (country) sex religion
  19. 19. 1960’s and 1970’s Civil Rightsand Women’s Movements Prohibits: Discrimination in employment (hiring, firing,training…) Segregation Retaliation for filing Claims Administered by E.E.O.C. 1978 Uniform Guidelines developed
  20. 20. Cross Cultural I/O PsychologyDiversity of Workforce Increasing diversity Women Ethnic minorities Opportunity for different viewpoints and perspectives organizational creativity and innovation understanding and reaching new marketsBy 2010 white males will count for less than 40% of the workforce
  21. 21. Cross Cultural I/O PsychologyScope of the Work Environment Globalization of business 100,000+ U.S. company do business overseas Jobs increasing in complexity Increased responsiveness to needs ofworkers
  22. 22. Cross Cultural I/O PsychologyOther issues Mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures International business environment “cultural shock” outsourcing High technology and telecommunicationsystems Internet influences
  23. 23. Changing Labor Market Tighter market for skilled workers recruitment (attract) selection retention retraining Growing numbers of low-skilled service jobs how can this work be made more meaningful?
  24. 24. Organizational Downsizing Strategy of reducing an organization’s workforce toimprove organizational efficiency, productivity and/orcompetitiveness technological advances robotics computer-assisted manufacturing reduction in mid-level management flatter organizations teams
  25. 25. Current Hot Topics Mergers, Acquisitions and Joint Ventures Influences of Technology Explosion Cultural Diversity Change Management Work and Family Balance Competency Modeling Teams
  26. 26. Industrial-Organizational (I-O)PsychologyTodayOne of the fastest growing areas of psychology
  27. 27. I-O Psychologists Versatile behavioral scientists dealing withhuman behavior in the workplace Scientists who derive principles of individual,group and organizational behavior throughresearch Consultants and staff psychologists whodevelop scientific knowledge and apply it insolving problems at work Teachers who train in both research andapplication of I-O Psychology
  28. 28. Four Main Work Areas ofI-O Psychologists Academia 37% Consulting 38% Government 7% Industry 18%
  29. 29. Six Fields (specializationareas) Selection and Placement Performance Appraisal Training and Development Organizational Development Occupational Health Quality of work life Human Factors Psychology Ergonomics
  30. 30. Society for Industrial and OrganizationalPsychology (SIOP) Division 14 of the American Psychological Association (oneof 53) The professional organization for I-O Info. Graduate programs Jobs Conferences Networking Publications
  31. 31.  American Psychological Association (APA) largest professional organization forpsychologists American Psychological Society (APS) alternative professional organization stressinga scientific focus
  32. 32. Licensing in I-O Psychology Issues protection of public exclusivity of practice SIOP’s current position not supporting licensing in I-O continual review of policy
  33. 33. Some Journals Publishing I-O Research Journal of Applied Psychology Personnel Psychology Academy of Management Journal Academy of management Review Journal of Applied Social Psychology Journal of Management Journal of Occupational Behavior Leadership Quarterly Organizational Behavior and Human DecisionProcesses Training and Development Journal