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Music video theory
Narrative theory
• Todorov, a Bulgarian academic, devised a way of looking at narrative structures
according to the differ...
Narrative theory
VLADAMIR PROPP
On of the most well known of these theorists is Vladimir Propp. Although his theories were...
Genre theory
Select texts on basis of genre, often because texts are arranged at retail
outlets by genre. Also, certain ge...
Genre theory
Genre theorist Thomas Schatz put forward the view that genres tend to pass through a number of ‘stages’, in a...
Audience theory
Effects 1 – The hypodermic model Just like the syringe used to inject
a drug into a body, the media ‘injec...
Audience theory
Effects 4 – Copycat (or modelling) theory This approach suggests that
people will imitate what they see in...
Representation theory
THE INTENTIONAL VIEW
This is the opposite of the Reflective idea. This time the most important thing...
Representation
THE CONSTRUCTIONIST VIEW
This is really a response to what have been seen a weakness in the other two theor...
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Music video theory

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Music video theory

  1. 1. Music video theory
  2. 2. Narrative theory • Todorov, a Bulgarian academic, devised a way of looking at narrative structures according to the different stages of the narrative • Using this structure, he believed that narratives were circular - they were about trying to reach the beginning. • THE 5 STAGES • 1.The equilibrium – the state of balance in the narrative, where we get to know the characters and their situation. • 2.The disruption – oppositional characters or events are introduced and the story moves forward • 3.The recognition (of the disruption) – Where the story develops, different events and characters become involved and more drama occurs. • 4.The attempts to repair the disruption – where there may be a twist or climactic point • 5.The new equilibrium – the problem is solved and harmony is resolved, though things may have changed.
  3. 3. Narrative theory VLADAMIR PROPP On of the most well known of these theorists is Vladimir Propp. Although his theories were originally written in the 1920s (in The Morphology of the Folk Tale) and refer to Russian Folk Stories, they have since been used in reference to many modern narratives. Propp referred to eight main character types. These are: • THE HERO • THE FALSE HERO • THE PRINCES • THE FATHER (OF THE PRINCESS) • THE HELPER • THE VILLAIN • THE DONOR • THE DISPATCHER Obviously it is difficult to take a theory from around 80 years ago about Russian stories and relate it directly to every film made. Having said that, it is surprising how accurately some of Propp’s character types can be applied to many modern film narratives. Each of these character types has a specific role within the narrative. The dispatcher send the hero on their ‘quest’ – the princess is the reward for the hero’s endeavours. Sometimes one character may take on more than one character function. For example, Lara Croft in Tomb Raider combines the roles of princess, hero and helper. The helper and the donor are similar as they both assist the hero in some way, but each role is slightly differently. The donor gives the hero something to help him, whereas the helper helps them along the way.
  4. 4. Genre theory Select texts on basis of genre, often because texts are arranged at retail outlets by genre. Also, certain genres are considered appropriate to certain ages/genders in society, and choices are made accordingly eg teen movie, ‘chick flicks’ Have systems of expectations about the content and style of a text, according to its genre. This enables them to take particular pleasures in the text, those of repetition, and of predicted resolution. Pleasure may also be drawn from differences. Identify with repeated elements in generic texts and may shape their own identity in response (eg fans of a particular genre of music dress in a specific way - metalheads in their band t-shirts, for instance)
  5. 5. Genre theory Genre theorist Thomas Schatz put forward the view that genres tend to pass through a number of ‘stages’, in a predictable pattern or cycle, through their lifespan STAGE 1 - INNOVATIVE Genre texts offer a high degree of innovation, experimenting with genre conventions or merging existing genres to create newforms. At this stage, genre texts are likely to challenge audiences and to attain popularity through their originality. STAGE 2 - CLASSICAL Genre conventions are well established and boundaries between genres tend to be well-defined and more stable. At this stage, genre texts are likely to generate pleasure through the reinforcement of predictable elements and the repetition of popular structures STAGE 3 - PARODY Genre texts take advantage of the audience’s familiarity with their conventions by self-consciously drawing attention to their form and style. Audience pleasure is generated by the acknowledgement of the shared experience, often in the form of exaggerated orhumourous use of generic conventions STAGE 4 - DECONSTRUCTION Genre texts begin to challenge their generic elements by reformulating the conventions – breaking, ignoring or altering the shared understanding of genre. Audience pleasure is generated through the genre text’s ability to recognise and to subvert its formsand meanings. The process of transformation may sometimes lead the genre through to the beginning of the cycle once more THE SCHATZ CYCLE • Innovation phase • Classical phase • Parodic phase • Deconstruction phase
  6. 6. Audience theory Effects 1 – The hypodermic model Just like the syringe used to inject a drug into a body, the media ‘injects’ messages directly into the minds of the viewers/listeners/readers; and they can be as addictive as heroin Effects 2 – Cultivation theory As audiences watch more and more film and television, they gradually develop certain views about the world, some of which are ‘false’. Effects 3 – Desensitisation If we are exposed to too much violence, or too much blatant sexuality, we will become less sensitive to real life violence and sexual behaviours.
  7. 7. Audience theory Effects 4 – Copycat (or modelling) theory This approach suggests that people will imitate what they see in the media – e.g. if young people watch Natural Born Killers, they will go out on a killing spree. This is not so much a ‘theory’ as an assumption perpetuated by the Press! Uses and gratifications Instead of researching what the media do to the audience, this approach studies what the audience does with the media. This approach also takes account of people’s personalities and personal needs. Reception analysis Audiences are seen as active producers of meaning, rather than as merely consumers of media meanings. They make sense of media texts according to their social position (in terms of their identity) – and their gender, race, class etc.
  8. 8. Representation theory THE INTENTIONAL VIEW This is the opposite of the Reflective idea. This time the most important thing in the process of representation is the person doing the representing — they are presenting their view of the thing they are representing and the words or images that they use mean what they intend them to mean. Michael Moore can easily be seen to have a political agenda with his documentary making. In Fahrenheit 9/11 (2004), his representation of President Bush was carefully constructed to create a specific idea of an idiotic and corrupt man. He selected images and quotes carefully which would support his perspective and rejected images and quotes that may have challenged this idea of the US president. He juxtaposed these images with news footage, interviews and other images which would anchor his meaning and ensure that throughout the film the idea of President Bush was consolidated.
  9. 9. Representation THE CONSTRUCTIONIST VIEW This is really a response to what have been seen a weakness in the other two theories — constructionists feel that a representation can never just be the truth or the version of the truth that someone wants you to hear since that is ignoring your ability as an individual to make up your own mind and the influences of the society that you live in on the way that you do so. Any representation is a mixture of: 1. The thing itself. 2. The opinions of the people doing the representation 3. The reaction of the individual to the representation 4. The context of the society in which the representation is taking place. What this view adds to the equation is the role of audiences and their differing opinions, and the role of society. This addition makes the concept of representation increasingly complex and there now becomes a whole host of readings and factors that contribute tohow audiences view things. The truth is that amid all this confusion of opinions, some kinds of ideas dominate and are shared by a majority of people. We call views about how things should be and how people should behave an ideology and if an ideology is shared by the majority of people in a culture it is called the dominant ideology. The group of ideas that make up the dominant ideology in Britain are not something that remains static — they change as new ideas are encountered and people discuss them. For example the dominant ideology in Britain used to be opposed to homosexual practises. Over time, however, opposition has changed to tolerance and then to acceptance for the majority, allowing openly gay men to present news and entertainment programmes and enter civil partnerships with one another. Here are some things that are generally agreed to be part of the dominant ideology in Britain: • People should put their families first. • People should work for their money and not show off too much about how much they have. • Women should behave modestly. Dominant ideologies in other countries might have significant differences

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