The movement of water vapor
through the atmosphere.
The flow of water from a drainage
basin or watershed that appears in
Water is stored in the atmosphere;
water is stored on the surface of the
earth, and water stored in the ground.
Groundwater can spend over 10,000
years beneath the Earth’s surface
Old groundwater is called
The residence time in the
atmosphere is about 9 days
before falling to the Earth as
Antarctica and Greenland store ice
for very long periods. Ice from
Antarctica has been reliably dated to
800,000 years before present, though
the average residence time is shorter.
Conservation of Mass
- considers the amount of water.
- dating groundwater.
Much more water is “in storage”
compared to the amount of water
involved in the cycle.
Alteration of the chemical composition of the atmosphere
Construction of dams
Deforestation and Forestation
Removal of groundwater from wells
Water abstraction from rivers
The water cycle is dependent on solar
energy. Eighty-six (86) percent of the
global evaporation occurs from oceans.
They help lower the temperature by
Water cycle is a biogeochemical
process. Chemicals may be included
in water cycle whether wanted or
Ancient theories and beliefs about the origin of water.
Land mass floated on bodies of water.
Biblical Books of Moses,
Works of Homer
Greek scholars speculated that much
of the water in rivers can be attributed
Anaximander, Xenophanes of
Colophon, Chi NiTzu, Lu Shih Ch’un
Ch’iu, Anaxagoras of Clazomenae,
Diogenes of Apollonia, Plato, Aristotle
Rainfall alone is sufficient for the
maintenance of Rivers, as mentioned
by Bernard Palissy and a study
attributed to Pierre Perrault.