Microphone types and characteristicsHistory of the microphone:The history of the microphone begins with SirCharles Wheatstone in 1827; he was the first personto use the word microphone but was not the one toinvent it. 49 years later a person called EmileBerliner was the first person to invent themicrophone, which was used as a voice transmitter,which was later known (and known to us now) as atelephone. Emile was not the one to invent thetelephone but improved it with the microphone. 2years later in 1878; David Edward Hughes inventedthe carbon microphone which was later then This is an image of Emile Berliner; thedeveloped during the 1920s. With the invention of inventor of the first microphone.the radio, new broadcasting microphones were thenalso invented.How a microphone works:1. When you speak, sound waves are created by your voice which are thencarried towards the microphone2. Inside the microphone, the diaphragm moves back and forth as the soundwaves hit it.3. The coil, attached to the diaphragm, moves back and forth as well.4. The permanent magnet produces a magnetic field that cuts through the coil.As the coil moves back and forth through the magnetic field, an electric currentflows through it.5. The electric current flows out from the microphone to an amplifier or soundrecording device.
Types of microphones:-Dynamic"Dynamic microphones are useful when the soundsource is close and reasonably loud."Dynamic microphones are great when you want tocapture sound which is loud and close (as seen in thequote above from Sound On Sound website)also wherethe sound is predominantly bass or mid-range.. They also have the benefit ofbeing tough and relatively inexpensive, and they dont require phantom poweror batteries.-Capacitor"The majority of variable-pattern microphonesare built around a dual-diaphragm design..."Capacitor microphones are great at respondingto very high audio frequencies, and are usually alot more sensitive than their dynamiccounterparts. Put it simply they require less amplification than dynamic modelsto produce the same output level from the same signal source, making themmore suitable for quieter or distant sound sources. - Electret condenserElectret condensers are a stable dielectricmaterial with a permanently embeddedstatic electric charge; it is a type ofcondenser microphone, which eliminatesthe need for a polarizing power supply byusing a permanently charged material.
- RibbonA ribbon microphone is a type of microphone that usesa thin aluminium, duralumin or Nano film ribbon placedbetween the poles of a magnet to generate voltages byelectromagnetic induction. Ribbon microphones aretypically bidirectional, meaning they pick up soundsequally well from either side of the microphone. - Carbon The carbon microphone, also known as a carbon buttons microphone (or sometimes just a button microphone) or a carbon transmitter, is a sound- to-electrical signal transducer consisting of two metal plates separated by granules of carbon. - CrystalThe crystal microphone uses a thin strip of piezoelectricmaterial attached to a diaphragm. The two sides of thecrystal take on opposite charges when the crystal isdeflected by the diaphragm. The charges are proportionalto the amount of deformation and disappear when thestress on the crystal disappears. - LavalierIt provides excellent yet background sounds will not beheard. It is designed best for talking heads; lecturers, TVperformers, interviewers or interviewees. Designed forclip-on lavalier and musical instrument use, it features anintegral 80 Hz high-pass filter that provides easy switchingfrom a flat frequency response to a low-end roll-off.
- Rifle Rifle is a capacitor microphone suitable for video and audio recordings and transmissions where direct close-talking microphone applications are impossible; has excellent sound rejection from the side and the rear. - BoomA boom microphone is a directional microphone attached toa pole or arm. It’s mainly used in film and television, a boommicrophone frees the hands of actors or reporters whileallowing them to enjoy the amplified audio of a traditionalmicrophone. Boom microphones can also be used to amplifya group conversation, as it can be positioned so thateveryones voice can be heard. - Radio A wireless microphone, Also known as a radio microphone, it has a small, battery-powered radio transmitter in the microphone body, which transmits the audio signal from the microphone by radio waves to a nearby receiver unit, which recovers the audio.