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Lesson 3 - scheduling A2 Media


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A2 Media Studies, Industry, TV, scheduling, year 13

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Lesson 3 - scheduling A2 Media

  1. 1. Learning Objectives To understand scheduling To begin to understand the impact of digital technology on the TV industry
  2. 2. Possible exam question • Explore the impact of digital technologies on your selected industry [30] • At the top of your page indicate with how confident you feel in answering this question.
  3. 3. 1980s • The 1980s saw the introduction of time shifted viewing. • This was as a result of video recorders. Audiences were able to record a programme on one channel and watch another channel. • Are we still affected by time shifted viewing?
  4. 4. Yes! The introduction of digital technology enables us to watch programmes whenever and wherever we want: • Sky+ • DVD • Internet • Phone/tablet
  5. 5. TV today • There are more programmes and channels then ever before • Each is watched by smaller audiences than ever before • Technology means that we don’t just watch on TV but via internet – iplayer, 4 OD, youtube, etc. Or they buy box sets on DVD or set up schedules on Sky+ • At the same time genres are splintering and merging into an array of sub genres and hybrids • TV is complex, diverse and rapidly changing!
  6. 6. Event television • However, event television is making a return. • This means high profile programmes which attract a large audience for the actual broadcast. It is highly promoted and therefore seen as an ‘event’. • Can you think of any examples?
  7. 7. Water-cooler television • This is an American term which describes an immediate audience response to a programme where it is talked about around the water cooler the next day. • What examples can you think of?
  8. 8. Scheduling • Scheduling is the decisions made by channels regarding where to place programmes in terms of the day and time. The aim in constructing the schedule is to secure high ratings for the channel and for specific programmes. • It is the job of the schedulers and planners to ensure programmes are placed in such a way that they attract the greatest audience. However, scheduling is not as important as it used to be.
  9. 9. Scheduling techniques The aim of TV schedulers is to use a range of techniques to keep audiences watching that channel. These include: • Broadcasting trailers and teasers for a programme during the day. • Pre-echo – scheduling a less popular programme before a more popular one, in the hope of catching viewers who may watch earlier. • Hammocking – placing a new or less popular show on between 2 popular shows in the hope that the audience will watch through. • Inheritance – putting a new or less popular show after a programme with high ratings in the hope hat viewers will watching and the programmes will therefore inherit the audience. hammocking pre-echo inheritance
  10. 10. • Stripping – broadcasting a programming at the same time every day/week. This ensures that audiences become familiar with the scheduling time and know when to watch. This technique is used for soap operas and news programmes. • Zoning – This is where programmes of a similar genre are broadcast one after the other on a particular channel. The assumption is that the fans of the genre will stay with that channel. Five use this to broadcast their American crime programmes. • Offensive scheduling – This is where a channel is confident that their programme will gain higher rating than a programme on a rival channel. So they broadcast it at the same time in order to lure the ‘live’ audience. • Defensive scheduling – This is where a channel is aware that a programme on a rival channel will bring in high audience figures. They may decide to schedule a programme of minority appeal at this time.
  11. 11. • Homework: Analyse a scheduling guide for one week. What examples of scheduling techniques can be found?
  12. 12. Social media • How does social media play a part in generating excitement about certain programmes? • Tweets may encourage audiences to watch the programme during the original broadcast because they will be able to part of the discussion. • Facebook pages have been created for some programmes to help build fan bases. • What are the problems with social media for programmes?
  13. 13. Convergence • An attempt by industries to maximise profit by making a range of media companies work together i.e. digital and satellite television and film channels, DVD, mobile phones/tablets, internet and broadband, personal computers. • The ultimate ideal would be for the consumer to be able to use just one piece of technology (e.g, a PC or mobile) for all their media needs.
  14. 14. How do we use TVs? • • • • • • • • To view programmes Use of interactive services Rent films Play game consoles e.g. Wii Internet Social networking Skype View personal photos/videos
  15. 15. Fragmentation • This argues that multi-channel TV and all the related technologies for personalising viewing would undermine the mass audience with serious consequences for most of us in the medium to long term. • These consequences reach out beyond the media sphere. They include:
  16. 16. Effects of Fragmentation • The end of PSBs and ultimately high quality television programmes. • The end of mass audiences sharing significant experiences ‘live’ (e.g.: sporting events, royal weddings etc) • A decline in family life – with family members retreating to his or her own ‘viewing station’
  17. 17. Possible exam question • Explore the impact of digital technologies on your selected industry [30] • The TV is an ideal focus for this question as you can consider the range of different ways of accessing TV programmes, how TVs are no longer used only to watch TV, the concept of convergence and theories of fragmentation. • Although we will begin to identify how some mass audience TV programmes are proving to be resilient.