Week two, gilded age


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Week two, gilded age

  1. 1. The Gilded Age Dr. John Holmes U.S. History After 1877, History 121, Diablo Valley College San Ramon Summer 2013
  2. 2. The Transformation of America Before 1877, America a rural nation After 1877, America industrializes, urbanizes, and immigrates This class: industrialization 1865-1920: Population increases 300% Manufacturing 1000% GNP per capita more than 300%
  3. 3. America before 1877 The First Industrial Revolution Centered in New England Iron railroads in North Small factories, individual owners Railroad companies, state not federal subsidy Millionaires and big businesses few and far between But by WWI, U.S. Steel the biggest company in the world
  4. 4. The Corporation Sale of stocks means: Separation of ownership and control Stockholders vs. management Key role of banks as financiers From free competition to monopoly Henry Demarest Lloyd, doc. 18-3 Railroads: the first big corporations
  5. 5. The Robber Barons Symbols of the Gilded Age Widely hated: By laborers; By farmers; By small businessmen
  6. 6. Jay Gould Most hated man in America Grant Administration scandals His own views: doc. 18-1 Robert Ingersoll on Gould Sayings: I can hire one half of the working class to kill the other half. The effect of this policy will be to anni- hilate the Indians & so greatly benefit us.
  7. 7. Andrew Carnegie Richest man in world. Gould’s opposite. Doc. 18-4 Brilliant businessman Price of steel: $126 a ton in 1864, less than 20 in 1890s Steel empire founded on rails for railroads Gave it all away Carnegie Institute
  8. 8. Corruption of the Gilded Age Government favoritism to business Railroads and the Homestead Act The lobbyist: free rail passes Where to draw the line? The bank bailout
  9. 9. Government before the Civil War Federal Government barely existed The army, the mails Tariffs on imports Half of all government revenue Northern business: high tariffs for “improvements” Southern plantation owners were opposed The great political issue of the 19th Century
  10. 10. After the Civil War First federal income tax Homestead Act in 1862 The great land giveaway 1850: 63% of all land federal 1912: half that The thin line between economic development and corruption
  11. 11. Political Results of the Compromise of 1877 North Republican, South Democratic “politics of dead center” Party politics a national obsession Political and social conflict about rich and poor, not North and South
  12. 12. Politics after 1877 Party differences mostly rhetorical Huge corruption in government at all levels Hardly any social welfare spending Intense political life, spoils system Plunkett, doc. 19-5 Urban social services through parties Ward heelers and the poor
  13. 13. Labor Unions arise after Civil War 1865-1900: wages of skilled workers double, unskilled decline Craft and industrial unionism National Labor Union Founded in 1866 Based on local craft unions Votes to admit women and blacks, but In practice, usually doesn’t Attempt to establish labor party Collapses in Depression of 1870s
  14. 14. The Knights of Labor Industrial unionism: skilled and unskilled, men and women, white and black Exclusion of Chinese: Doc. 18-1 “Producerism”: cooperatives as alternative to capitalism, alliance with farmers Manufacturers can join as fellow producers
  15. 15. Labor politics Terence Powderly, mayor of Scranton and leader of Knights of Labor Henry George and the New York Labor Party
  16. 16. The Great Upheaval of 1886 1885: Knights of Labor defeat Jay Gould in rail strike K of L grows like wildfire 8 hour day and Mayday Haymarket and Albert Parsons Powderly comes out against strikes; K of L collapses
  17. 17. The Haymarket Affair The monument
  18. 18. The American Federation of Labor Samuel Gompers National craft unionism “Pure and Simple” Skilled workers, high dues Unskilled, immigrants, blacks and women excluded No more involvement with politics
  19. 19. The West during the Gilded Age The reader, Chapter 17 Doc. 17-2, the pioneer experience 17-3: Mexican Americans in Southwest 17-4: The Indian experience from the Indian viewpoint 17-5: The reservations, what the US government had in mind for Native Americans 17-1: the Chinese in California
  20. 20. The Ideology of the Gilded Age Economic individualism, free market, Adam Smith No land redistribution in South Protestant Work Ethic and the Puritans Democrats and Republicans Social Darwinism Darwin, Spencer and Sumner Carnegie and Gould
  21. 21. Discussion Exercise on Gilded Age Ideology Ungraded practice exercise Based on documents in reader Chapter 18, from Gould, Sumner, Lloyd, Carnegie and George, 18-1 through 18-5 See Discussion Questions posting
  22. 22. Next Class The Crisis of the 1890s: Populism, Depression; War and Jim Crow Discussion Exercise on Spanish- American War Thursday Readings: Foner, Chapter 17 Johnson, Chapters 19 and 20; docs. 21-5 and 21-6