Diversity And Classification of
Flowering Plants:
Commelinid Monocots
Michael G. Simpson
Commelinid Monocots
Apomorphy:
UV-fluorescent
organic acids
(including
coumaric, diferulic,
and ferulic acid)
that impregn...
ARECALES
Arecaceae (Palmae) - Palm family
(from areca, Portuguese for the betel palm). ca. 190 genera / ca. 2,000 species....
reduplicate vs. induplicatereduplicate vs. induplicate
Fruit a drupeFruit a drupe
Archontophoenix cunninghamiana King PalmArchontophoenix cunninghamiana King Palm
Syagrus romanzoffiana Queen Palm
Calamus Rattan PalmCalamus Rattan Palm
Chamaerops humilis Mediterranean PalmChamaerops humilis Mediterranean Palm
Jubea chilensisJubea chilensis
Licuala peltataLicuala peltata
Nypa fruticans - a rhizomatous palmNypa fruticans - a rhizomatous palm
Phoenix canariensis
Canary I. Palm
Phoenix canariensis
Canary I. Palm
Phoenix dactylifera
Date Palm
Phoenix dactylifera
Date Palm
Rhopalostylis sapidaRhopalostylis sapida
Sabal urseanaSabal urseana
Washingtonia filifera
Desert Fan Palm
Washingtonia filifera
Desert Fan Palm
Washingtonia filifera Desert FanWashingtonia filifera Desert Fan
Washingtonia robustaWashingtonia robusta Zombia antillarum
ZINGIBERALES - Ginger Group
Apomorphies:
Penni-parallel venation
Supervolute leaf “ptyxis”
(1/2 of leaf rolled within the ...
Musaceae - Banana family
(after Antonia Musa, physician to Emporer Augustus 63-14
BC). 3 genera (Ensete, Musa, and Musella...
Musaceae
Musa Banana MusaceaeMusa Banana Musaceae
Musa Banana MusaceaeMusa Banana Musaceae
Musa Banana MusaceaeMusa Banana Musaceae
Ensete Musaceae
StrelitziaceaeMusaceae
Strelitziaceae - Bird-of-paradise
family (after Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, wife of King
George III). 3 genera (Phe...
Strelitzia nicolai Giant/Tree Bird of ParadiseStrelitzia nicolai Giant/Tree Bird of Paradise
Strelitzia reginae Bird of ParadiseStrelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise
Strelitzia reginae Bird of ParadiseStrelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise
Strelitzia reginae Bird of ParadiseStrelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise
Strelitzia reginae Bird of ParadiseStrelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise
Zingiberaceae - Ginger family
(from a pre-Gr. name, possibly from India). 50 genera / 1,200 species
The Zingiberaceae are ...
Zingiberaceae - Ginger family
(from a pre-Gr. name, possibly from India). 50 genera / 1,200 species
Economic importance in...
Zingiberaceae
Strelitziaceae
Musaceae
Alpinia Shell GingerAlpinia Shell Ginger
Brachychilus horsfieldiiBrachychilus horsfieldii
Globba
HedychiumHedychium
HedychiumHedychium
HedychiumHedychium
Nicolaia elatior
Cannaceae - Canna-Lily family
(Gr. canna, a reed). 1 genus (Canna) / 25 species
The Cannaceae are distinguished from relat...
Cannaceae
StrelitziaceaeMusaceae Zingiberaceae
Canna sp. CannaceaeCanna sp. Cannaceae
Canna sp. CannaceaeCanna sp. Cannaceae
Canna sp. CannaceaeCanna sp. Cannaceae
Canna sp. CannaceaeCanna sp. Cannaceae
Commelinaceae—Spiderwort family
(after Caspar Commelijn, Dutch botanist, 1667–1731)
39 genera/640 species.
The Commelinace...
Haemodoraceae—Bloodwort family
(Gr. haimo, blood, in reference to red pigmentation in roots and
rootstocks of some members...
Bromeliaceae - Bromeliad family
(after Swedish medical doctor and botanist, Olof Ole Bromell
(1639-1705). 59 genera / 2,40...
Peltate scales
Peltate scales fr. Pierce, 2006
Twisted Styles
AechmeaAechmea
Ananas comosus PineappleAnanas comosus Pineapple
Bilbergia nutans (left), sp. (right)Bilbergia nutans (left), sp. (right)
Dyckia dawsoniiDyckia dawsonii
NeoregaliaNeoregalia
NeoregaliaNeoregalia
Puya alpestrisPuya alpestris
Puya venustusPuya venustus Puya sp.
Tillandsia fasciculata
Tillandsia usneoides Spanish-MossTillandsia usneoides Spanish-Moss
Cyperaceae - Sedge family
(Gr. for several species of Cyperus). 98 genera / 4,350 species
The Cyperaceae are distinctive i...
Cyperaceae - Sedge family
(Gr. for several species of Cyperus). 98 genera / 4,350 species
Economic importance is limited, ...
Cyperaceae of San Diego County
Bolboschoenus maritimus
Carex barbarae
male
spikelet
female
spikelets
female
spikelet
perigynia
Carex praegracilis
female
spikelet
perigynia
enclosing
ovaries
Carex triquetra
Cyperus sp.
spikelet:
bracts
distichous
Cyperus
involucratus
spikelet
involucral
bracts
Eleocharis macrostachya
Eleocharis montevidensis
Eleocharis parishii
Shoenoplectus [Scirpus] americanus
Shoenoplectus [Scirpus] californicus
Shoenoplectus [Scirpus] pungens
involucral
bract
spikelet
Juncaceae - Rush family
(L. for binder, in reference to use in weaving and basketry).
7 genera / 430 species
The Juncaceae...
Juncaceae of San Diego County
Juncus acutus Spiny Rush
Juncus bufonius
Juncus dubius
Juncus dubius
Juncus phaeocephalus
Poaceae - Grass family
(after Poa, Gr. name for a grass). 668 genera / 9,500 species
STEMS: hollow-pithed
LEAVES: open-she...
DISTRIBUTION: worldwide.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE:
1) agricultural grains (most important food in world):
barley (Hordeum)
corn...
distichous
leaf
arrangement
distichous
leaf
arrangement
open
sheath
open
sheath
liguleligule
Bamboos
Fruit: Grain
Achnatherum coronatumAchnatherum coronatum
GRASSES OF SAN DIEGO CO.
Agrostis pallens
Arundo donaxArundo donax
Avena barbataAvena barbata
Avena fatuaAvena fatua
Bothriochloa barbinodisBothriochloa barbinodis
Brachypodium distachyonBrachypodium distachyon
Briza minorBriza minor
Bromus diandrusBromus diandrus
Bromus rubens ssp. madritensisBromus rubens ssp. madritensis
Cortaderia selloanaCortaderia selloana
Cynodon dactylon
Bermuda Grass
Cynodon dactylon
Bermuda Grass
Distichlis littoralis
[Monanthochloe l.]
Distichlis littoralis
[Monanthochloe l.]
Distichlis spicataDistichlis spicata
Echinochloa crus-galiEchinochloa crus-gali
Gastridium ventricosumGastridium ventricosum
Hordeum murinumHordeum murinum
Lamarckia aureaLamarckia aurea
Lolium multiflorumLolium multiflorum
Melica frutescensMelica frutescens
Melica imperfectaMelica imperfecta
Muhlenbergia microspermaMuhlenbergia microsperma
Muhlenbergia rigens
Nasella lepidaNasella lepida
Nasella pulchraNasella pulchra
Parapholis incurvaParapholis incurva
Paspalum dilatatumPaspalum dilatatum
Paspalum distichumPaspalum distichum
Pennisetum setaceumPennisetum setaceum
Piptatherum miliaceumPiptatherum miliaceum
Polypogon maritimusPolypogon maritimus
Polypogon monspeliensisPolypogon monspeliensis
Melinis repensMelinis repens
Schismus barbatusSchismus barbatus
Spartina foliosaSpartina foliosa
Vulpia myurosVulpia myuros
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
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Ch7c (Botany Lecture)

  1. 1. Diversity And Classification of Flowering Plants: Commelinid Monocots Michael G. Simpson
  2. 2. Commelinid Monocots Apomorphy: UV-fluorescent organic acids (including coumaric, diferulic, and ferulic acid) that impregnate the cell walls.
  3. 3. ARECALES Arecaceae (Palmae) - Palm family (from areca, Portuguese for the betel palm). ca. 190 genera / ca. 2,000 species. The Arecaceae are distinctive in having a rhizomatous, lianous, or usually arborescent stem, with large, sheathing, plicate leaves, a fleshy, usually drupaceous fruit, and seeds lacking starch. The plicate leaves is an apomorphy for the family. P 3+3 [0,2+2,∞] A 3+3 or (3+3) [3,∞; 0 in female fls.] G 3 or (3) [1,2,4-10; 0 in male fls.], superior.
  4. 4. reduplicate vs. induplicatereduplicate vs. induplicate
  5. 5. Fruit a drupeFruit a drupe
  6. 6. Archontophoenix cunninghamiana King PalmArchontophoenix cunninghamiana King Palm
  7. 7. Syagrus romanzoffiana Queen Palm
  8. 8. Calamus Rattan PalmCalamus Rattan Palm
  9. 9. Chamaerops humilis Mediterranean PalmChamaerops humilis Mediterranean Palm
  10. 10. Jubea chilensisJubea chilensis
  11. 11. Licuala peltataLicuala peltata
  12. 12. Nypa fruticans - a rhizomatous palmNypa fruticans - a rhizomatous palm
  13. 13. Phoenix canariensis Canary I. Palm Phoenix canariensis Canary I. Palm
  14. 14. Phoenix dactylifera Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera Date Palm
  15. 15. Rhopalostylis sapidaRhopalostylis sapida
  16. 16. Sabal urseanaSabal urseana
  17. 17. Washingtonia filifera Desert Fan Palm Washingtonia filifera Desert Fan Palm
  18. 18. Washingtonia filifera Desert FanWashingtonia filifera Desert Fan
  19. 19. Washingtonia robustaWashingtonia robusta Zombia antillarum
  20. 20. ZINGIBERALES - Ginger Group Apomorphies: Penni-parallel venation Supervolute leaf “ptyxis” (1/2 of leaf rolled within the other) Diaphraghmed air chambers Silica cells Inferior ovary
  21. 21. Musaceae - Banana family (after Antonia Musa, physician to Emporer Augustus 63-14 BC). 3 genera (Ensete, Musa, and Musella) / ca. 40 species. The Musaceae are distinguished from related families of the Zingiberales in having a spiral leaf arrangement and monoecious plant sex. P (3+3) A 5-6 G (3), inferior. Economic importance includes use of fruits of Musa spp. as a food source (esp. Musa acuminata and the triploid hybrid of Musa x paradisiaca); Musa textilis (Manila-hemp, abacá) and Musa basjoo are used as a fiber source for twine, textiles, and building materials.
  22. 22. Musaceae
  23. 23. Musa Banana MusaceaeMusa Banana Musaceae
  24. 24. Musa Banana MusaceaeMusa Banana Musaceae
  25. 25. Musa Banana MusaceaeMusa Banana Musaceae
  26. 26. Ensete Musaceae
  27. 27. StrelitziaceaeMusaceae
  28. 28. Strelitziaceae - Bird-of-paradise family (after Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, wife of King George III). 3 genera (Phenakospermum, Ravenala, Strelitzia) / 7 species. The Strelitziaceae are distinguished from related families of the Zingiberales in having rhizomatous and decumbent or erect, arborescent stems with distichous leaves and flowers having 5-6 stamens. P (3+3) A 5 or 6 G (3), inferior.
  29. 29. Strelitzia nicolai Giant/Tree Bird of ParadiseStrelitzia nicolai Giant/Tree Bird of Paradise
  30. 30. Strelitzia reginae Bird of ParadiseStrelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise
  31. 31. Strelitzia reginae Bird of ParadiseStrelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise
  32. 32. Strelitzia reginae Bird of ParadiseStrelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise
  33. 33. Strelitzia reginae Bird of ParadiseStrelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise
  34. 34. Zingiberaceae - Ginger family (from a pre-Gr. name, possibly from India). 50 genera / 1,200 species The Zingiberaceae are distinguished from related families of the Zingiberales in having distichous, usually ligulate leaves with a single, dithecal stamen and a petaloid labellum derived from two staminodes. P (3+3) A 1 fertile + 2 + (2) petaloid staminodes G (3), inferior.
  35. 35. Zingiberaceae - Ginger family (from a pre-Gr. name, possibly from India). 50 genera / 1,200 species Economic importance includes the source of important spice plants, e.g., Curcuma spp., including C. domestica (turmeric), Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom), and Zingiber spp., including Z. officinale (ginger); some species are grown as cultivated ornamentals, e.g., Alpinia and Hedychium.
  36. 36. Zingiberaceae Strelitziaceae Musaceae
  37. 37. Alpinia Shell GingerAlpinia Shell Ginger
  38. 38. Brachychilus horsfieldiiBrachychilus horsfieldii
  39. 39. Globba
  40. 40. HedychiumHedychium
  41. 41. HedychiumHedychium
  42. 42. HedychiumHedychium
  43. 43. Nicolaia elatior
  44. 44. Cannaceae - Canna-Lily family (Gr. canna, a reed). 1 genus (Canna) / 25 species The Cannaceae are distinguished from related families of the Zingiberales in having usually distichous leaves and flowers with one petaloid, monothecal stamen associated with 1-4[5] petaloid staminodes. P 3+3 A 1, petaloid & monothecal + 1-4 petaloid staminodes G (3), inferior.
  45. 45. Cannaceae StrelitziaceaeMusaceae Zingiberaceae
  46. 46. Canna sp. CannaceaeCanna sp. Cannaceae
  47. 47. Canna sp. CannaceaeCanna sp. Cannaceae
  48. 48. Canna sp. CannaceaeCanna sp. Cannaceae
  49. 49. Canna sp. CannaceaeCanna sp. Cannaceae
  50. 50. Commelinaceae—Spiderwort family (after Caspar Commelijn, Dutch botanist, 1667–1731) 39 genera/640 species. The Commelinaceae are distinctive in being mostly perennial herbs with closed sheathed leaves and a trimerous, hypogynous flower with an ephemeral corolla, staminodia in some, most species with characteristic 3-celled glandular microhairs, the latter a probable apomorphy for the family. K 3 or (3) C 3 or (3) A 3 or 3 + 3 staminodes or 1 G (3)
  51. 51. Haemodoraceae—Bloodwort family (Gr. haimo, blood, in reference to red pigmentation in roots and rootstocks of some members) 13 genera/100 species. The Haemodoraceae are distinctive in being perennial herbs with arylphenalenone compounds (imparting a reddish coloration to stems and roots in almost all Haemodoroideae), unifacial leaves, and variable flowers. P 3+3 or (3+3) or (6) A 1,3,6 G (3), inferior or superior, hypanthium present or absent.
  52. 52. Bromeliaceae - Bromeliad family (after Swedish medical doctor and botanist, Olof Ole Bromell (1639-1705). 59 genera / 2,400 species The Bromeliaceae are distinctive in being perrenial terrestrial or epiphytic herbs or shrubs with surface peltate scales, often colorful bracts, and trimerous flowers with typically twisted stigmas. P 3+3 or (3)+(3) A 3+3 G 3, superior or inferior. Economic importance: Ananas comosus, pineapple.
  53. 53. Peltate scales
  54. 54. Peltate scales fr. Pierce, 2006
  55. 55. Twisted Styles
  56. 56. AechmeaAechmea
  57. 57. Ananas comosus PineappleAnanas comosus Pineapple
  58. 58. Bilbergia nutans (left), sp. (right)Bilbergia nutans (left), sp. (right)
  59. 59. Dyckia dawsoniiDyckia dawsonii
  60. 60. NeoregaliaNeoregalia
  61. 61. NeoregaliaNeoregalia
  62. 62. Puya alpestrisPuya alpestris
  63. 63. Puya venustusPuya venustus Puya sp.
  64. 64. Tillandsia fasciculata
  65. 65. Tillandsia usneoides Spanish-MossTillandsia usneoides Spanish-Moss
  66. 66. Cyperaceae - Sedge family (Gr. for several species of Cyperus). 98 genera / 4,350 species The Cyperaceae are distinctive in being herbs with usually 3-sided, solid-pithed stems, closed-sheathed, often tristichous leaves, the inflorescence a “sedge spikelet,” consisting of a central axis bearing many sessile, distichous or spiral bracts, each subtending a single, reduced unisexual or bisexual flower, with perianth absent or reduced to bristles or scales, usually 3 stamens, and a 2–3-carpellate ovary, the fruit a 2- or 3-sided achene. P 6 or 0 [1-∞] A 3 [1-6+] G (2-3)[(4)], superior.
  67. 67. Cyperaceae - Sedge family (Gr. for several species of Cyperus). 98 genera / 4,350 species Economic importance is limited, with some species used as mats, thatch, weaving material, or writing material (Cyperus papyrus, papyrus, the culm pith of which was historically used to make paperlike scrolls), a few used as ornamental cultivars (e.g., Cyperus involucratus, umbrella plant), and some species, such as the nutsedges, being noxious weeds.
  68. 68. Cyperaceae of San Diego County
  69. 69. Bolboschoenus maritimus
  70. 70. Carex barbarae male spikelet female spikelets female spikelet perigynia
  71. 71. Carex praegracilis female spikelet perigynia enclosing ovaries
  72. 72. Carex triquetra
  73. 73. Cyperus sp. spikelet: bracts distichous
  74. 74. Cyperus involucratus spikelet involucral bracts
  75. 75. Eleocharis macrostachya
  76. 76. Eleocharis montevidensis
  77. 77. Eleocharis parishii
  78. 78. Shoenoplectus [Scirpus] americanus
  79. 79. Shoenoplectus [Scirpus] californicus
  80. 80. Shoenoplectus [Scirpus] pungens involucral bract spikelet
  81. 81. Juncaceae - Rush family (L. for binder, in reference to use in weaving and basketry). 7 genera / 430 species The Juncaceae are distinctive in being usually perennial herbs with spiral, sheathing, bifacial or unifacial leaves, trimerous, actinomorphic flowers with a typically scarious perianth and a loculicidal capsule. P 3+3 [2+2 or 3] A 3+3 [3+0 or 2] G (3), superior, hypanthium absent
  82. 82. Juncaceae of San Diego County
  83. 83. Juncus acutus Spiny Rush
  84. 84. Juncus bufonius
  85. 85. Juncus dubius
  86. 86. Juncus dubius
  87. 87. Juncus phaeocephalus
  88. 88. Poaceae - Grass family (after Poa, Gr. name for a grass). 668 genera / 9,500 species STEMS: hollow-pithed LEAVES: open-sheathed, distichous, with a ligule at inner junction with blade INFLORESCENCE: grass spikelet = axis + two basal glumes + 1-∞ florets Floret = short lateral axis + lemma + palea + flower FLOWER: P 2-3 lodicules A 2-3 (pendulous) G (2-3) FRUIT: caryopsis (grain).
  89. 89. DISTRIBUTION: worldwide. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: 1) agricultural grains (most important food in world): barley (Hordeum) corn (Zea) oats (Avena) rice (Oryza) rye (Secale) wheat (Triticum); 2) alcoholic beverages: beer, whiskey, gin 3) forage and grazing plants; 4) important components of many ecosystems, such as grasslands and savannahs.
  90. 90. distichous leaf arrangement distichous leaf arrangement
  91. 91. open sheath open sheath
  92. 92. liguleligule
  93. 93. Bamboos
  94. 94. Fruit: Grain
  95. 95. Achnatherum coronatumAchnatherum coronatum GRASSES OF SAN DIEGO CO.
  96. 96. Agrostis pallens
  97. 97. Arundo donaxArundo donax
  98. 98. Avena barbataAvena barbata
  99. 99. Avena fatuaAvena fatua
  100. 100. Bothriochloa barbinodisBothriochloa barbinodis
  101. 101. Brachypodium distachyonBrachypodium distachyon
  102. 102. Briza minorBriza minor
  103. 103. Bromus diandrusBromus diandrus
  104. 104. Bromus rubens ssp. madritensisBromus rubens ssp. madritensis
  105. 105. Cortaderia selloanaCortaderia selloana
  106. 106. Cynodon dactylon Bermuda Grass Cynodon dactylon Bermuda Grass
  107. 107. Distichlis littoralis [Monanthochloe l.] Distichlis littoralis [Monanthochloe l.]
  108. 108. Distichlis spicataDistichlis spicata
  109. 109. Echinochloa crus-galiEchinochloa crus-gali
  110. 110. Gastridium ventricosumGastridium ventricosum
  111. 111. Hordeum murinumHordeum murinum
  112. 112. Lamarckia aureaLamarckia aurea
  113. 113. Lolium multiflorumLolium multiflorum
  114. 114. Melica frutescensMelica frutescens
  115. 115. Melica imperfectaMelica imperfecta
  116. 116. Muhlenbergia microspermaMuhlenbergia microsperma
  117. 117. Muhlenbergia rigens
  118. 118. Nasella lepidaNasella lepida
  119. 119. Nasella pulchraNasella pulchra
  120. 120. Parapholis incurvaParapholis incurva
  121. 121. Paspalum dilatatumPaspalum dilatatum
  122. 122. Paspalum distichumPaspalum distichum
  123. 123. Pennisetum setaceumPennisetum setaceum
  124. 124. Piptatherum miliaceumPiptatherum miliaceum
  125. 125. Polypogon maritimusPolypogon maritimus
  126. 126. Polypogon monspeliensisPolypogon monspeliensis
  127. 127. Melinis repensMelinis repens
  128. 128. Schismus barbatusSchismus barbatus
  129. 129. Spartina foliosaSpartina foliosa
  130. 130. Vulpia myurosVulpia myuros

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