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Foundations of Guidance

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  2. 2. REALISM Nature: Realism is a philosophy that believes that objects exist independent of the mind.
  3. 3. REALISM  Form of objectivism that assumes that some sort of reality is separate from the mind (ontology); to know is to have a correspondence between the world and the mind (epistemology).
  4. 4.  Realism is an act of accepting reality in its actual spirit and essence including facts, physical universe, events, necessities of life, ground realities, favourable or unfavourable situations, conditions and atmosphere, as they are, as opposed to the abstract or ideal.
  5. 5. JOHN LOCKE (1632 – 1704) “The mind represents the external world, but does not duplicate it. ” “All ideas came from experience.”
  6. 6.  The key term in Locke's Essay is "idea," which he defined as ". . . whatsoever is the object of the under-standing when a man thinks, . . . whatever is meant by phantasm, notion, species, or whatever it is which the mind can be employed about in thinking" (I.i.8).  Any object of awareness or of consciousness must be an idea.
  7. 7. Realism and aims of education 1. Preparing the child for a happy and successful life. 2. Preparing the child for a real life 3. Emphasis on training of senses 4. Equal importance to individuality and sociability 5. Developing scientific attitude 6. Developing vocational efficiency 7. Acquainting a child with nature and social environment
  8. 8. Client / Pupil  An organism with a highly developed brain, superior to others  4 principles comprises the essence of the human self:  Appetitive  Self-determination  Self-realization  Self-integration
  9. 9. Realist behaviors:  Gathers interpretable data from client.  Persuades client to change behavior to become more self-disciplining.  Verbally predicts possible client behavior.  Explains to client, how he, the counselor, solves problem  Changes client’s environment
  10. 10. Realistic career guidance  Careers are voyages of discovery.  Leading the client from behind works best.  A strength focus is more effective than a deficit focus.
  11. 11. CONSTRUCTIVISM Humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas.
  12. 12.  Constructivism's central idea is that human learning is constructed, that learners build new knowledge upon the foundation of previous learning.  In constructivism, there is not a 'one and only true way' to solve a task. The solution of a problem rather depends upon individual experiences and thoughts.
  13. 13. CONSTRUCTIVISM “Teaching is not about filling up the pail, it is about lighting a fire.”  Teaching involves giving opportunities for learners to explore and discover.  Learners construct their own meaning.  Learners generate insights and are “enlightened.”
  14. 14. 2 views of constructivism  Individual constructivism – emphasizes individual, internal construction of knowledge.  Social constructivism – knowledge exists in a social context and is initially shared with others instead of being represented solely in the mind of an individual.
  15. 15. JEAN PIAGET’s Cognitive Dev’t Stages LEV VYGOTSKY’s Socio-Cultural Theory
  16. 16. Characteristics of Constructivism  Learners construct understanding.  New learning depends on current understanding.  Learning is facilitated by social interaction.  Meaningful learning occurs within authentic learning tasks.
  17. 17. S 2003/philosophyofrealismandpracticalism.htm Lundin, R. W. (1996). Theories and Systems of Psychology. 5th edition. Ryan, C.W. and Butzow, J.W. (1973). Philosophical Beliefs of Counselor Trainees. Conseiller Canadien, Vol.7, No.2, Avril, 1973 Schuh, K.L. and barab, S.A. Philosophical Perspectives. Applefield, J.M., Huber, R. and Moallem, M. Constructivism in Theory and Practice:Toward A Better Understanding. Lucas, M.D. and Corpuz, B.B. (2007). Facilitating Learning: A Metacognitive Process. Lorimar Publishing, Inc. Coert, V. and Dierolf, K. (2004). Realistic Career Guidance. Retrived from: guidance.html