PSY 660 PHILOSOPHICAL ,
is a philosophy
that believes that
Form of objectivism that assumes that
some sort of reality is separate from
the mind (ontology); to know is to have
a correspondence between the world
and the mind (epistemology).
Realism is an act of accepting reality in
its actual spirit and essence including
facts, physical universe, events,
necessities of life, ground realities,
favourable or unfavourable situations,
conditions and atmosphere, as they
are, as opposed to the abstract or ideal.
(1632 – 1704)
“The mind represents the
external world, but does
not duplicate it. ”
“All ideas came from
The key term in Locke's Essay is "idea,"
which he defined as ". . . whatsoever is the
object of the under-standing when a man
thinks, . . . whatever is meant by phantasm,
notion, species, or whatever it is which the
mind can be employed about in thinking"
Any object of awareness or of
consciousness must be an idea.
Realism and aims of education
1. Preparing the child for a happy and successful
2. Preparing the child for a real life
3. Emphasis on training of senses
4. Equal importance to individuality and
5. Developing scientific attitude
6. Developing vocational efficiency
7. Acquainting a child with nature and social
Client / Pupil
An organism with a highly developed brain,
superior to others
4 principles comprises the essence of the human
Gathers interpretable data from client.
Persuades client to change behavior to
become more self-disciplining.
Verbally predicts possible client behavior.
Explains to client, how he, the counselor,
Changes client’s environment
Realistic career guidance
Careers are voyages of discovery.
Leading the client from behind
A strength focus is more effective
than a deficit focus.
meaning from an
and their ideas.
Constructivism's central idea is that human
learning is constructed, that learners build
new knowledge upon the foundation of
In constructivism, there is not a 'one and
only true way' to solve a task. The solution of
a problem rather depends upon individual
experiences and thoughts.
filling up the
pail, it is
Teaching involves giving
learners to explore and
Learners construct their
insights and are
2 views of constructivism
Individual constructivism – emphasizes
individual, internal construction of
Social constructivism – knowledge exists
in a social context and is initially shared
with others instead of being represented
solely in the mind of an individual.
Cognitive Dev’t Stages
Characteristics of Constructivism
Learners construct understanding.
New learning depends on current
Learning is facilitated by social
Meaningful learning occurs within
authentic learning tasks.
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Ryan, C.W. and Butzow, J.W. (1973). Philosophical Beliefs of
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Schuh, K.L. and barab, S.A. Philosophical Perspectives.
Applefield, J.M., Huber, R. and Moallem, M. Constructivism in
Theory and Practice:Toward A Better Understanding.
Lucas, M.D. and Corpuz, B.B. (2007). Facilitating Learning: A
Metacognitive Process. Lorimar Publishing, Inc.
Coert, V. and Dierolf, K. (2004). Realistic Career Guidance.
MARIA ANGELA L. DIOPOL