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CHAPTER 2
• Conscious understanding of something.
• Our sensory experience of the world around us and
involves both the recognition ...
• Means the conversion of one kind of energy into another
kind.
• Sensors in the body transform signals from the
environme...
• Refers to the transduction of physical energy, such as
sound waves or electromagnetic radiation, into an initial
mental ...
Is a narrow band of electromagnetic energy. The wavelengths of light
that may be sensed by the human visual system range f...
• This light, in what is called
the visual field, is
structured in accordance
with the structures of the
objects themselve...
Part of the cerebral cortex responsible for processing visual information.
Is vision without awareness that can be observed in patients with
lesions in the occipital cortex.
• Refers to the step between the transduction and
perception of a stimulus in the environment and its
categorization as a ...
A stimulus can be perceived and understood in terms of its properties but
not recognized as a meaningful object.
Patients ...
An inability to recognize objects clearly from their shapes.
Refers to a failure of pattern recognition caused by an inability to
categorize objects at a perceptual level of analysis.
Is caused by an inability to categorize objects at a functional semantic
level of analysis.
• Is a mental representation that organizes knowledge
about related concepts.
• Organized knowledge representations or sch...
• Reduce the need to sample all of the information
available in the environment by providing the perceiver
with expectatio...
• Analyze the edges, lines, areas of light and dark, colors,
sounds, and other physical features available briefly in
sens...
• Refers to a single letter being recognized faster in the
context of a whole word than when presented as an
isolated lett...
• Refers to the
phenomenon
that people fail
to notice large
changes in
visual scenes.
• Differentiate objects during pattern recognition. Neural
cells in the occipital cortex are tuned to fire when
stimulated...
• Consider not just features,
but also the relations
among features, to
facilitate pattern
recognition.
• Refers to a set of processes that are automatic, fast,
encapsulated apart from other cognitive systems, and
instantiated...
• Refers to perceiving
the whole object.
• Perception of faces is
unique in that it is
more strongly
influenced by holisti...
• Refers to perceiving the features that compose the
whole.
• Analytic processing targets the nose, the eyes, the lips,
an...
• refers to an individual's
understanding and
interpretation of the face,
particularly the human
face, especially in relat...
• Is a selective inability to recognize
faces that does not involve other
kinds of vision difficulties.
• Example: A sheep...
• Is challenging because
the acoustic signal for
the basic sounds of
speech that
communicate
meaning—phonemes—
is highly c...
• Represent the physical acoustic
energy of an utterance by
plotting frequency in hertz or
cycles per second on the y axis...
• A speech sound or phonological segment that makes a
difference in meaning.
• Are coarticulated, meaning that each segmen...
• A critical function of the speech processing module is the
categorization of speech input at the phonemic level, a
pheno...
Kellogg, R. T. (2007). Fundamentals of Cognitive Psychology. SAGE
Publications, Inc.
Perception
Perception
Perception
Perception
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Perception

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Perception

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2
  2. 2. • Conscious understanding of something. • Our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli.
  3. 3. • Means the conversion of one kind of energy into another kind. • Sensors in the body transform signals from the environment into encoded neural signals.
  4. 4. • Refers to the transduction of physical energy, such as sound waves or electromagnetic radiation, into an initial mental representation that can be further processed and transformed over time.
  5. 5. Is a narrow band of electromagnetic energy. The wavelengths of light that may be sensed by the human visual system range from 400 to 700 nanometers.
  6. 6. • This light, in what is called the visual field, is structured in accordance with the structures of the objects themselves. • The detection process begins with the transduction of electromagnetic energy by photoreceptor in the retina of the eye. • PHOTORECEPTORS are neurons specialized to convert visible light into electrical signals that may be propagated by the neurons of the visual system.
  7. 7. Part of the cerebral cortex responsible for processing visual information.
  8. 8. Is vision without awareness that can be observed in patients with lesions in the occipital cortex.
  9. 9. • Refers to the step between the transduction and perception of a stimulus in the environment and its categorization as a meaningful object.
  10. 10. A stimulus can be perceived and understood in terms of its properties but not recognized as a meaningful object. Patients suffering from lesions in certain regions of the brain can see objects but not recognize them at all.
  11. 11. An inability to recognize objects clearly from their shapes.
  12. 12. Refers to a failure of pattern recognition caused by an inability to categorize objects at a perceptual level of analysis.
  13. 13. Is caused by an inability to categorize objects at a functional semantic level of analysis.
  14. 14. • Is a mental representation that organizes knowledge about related concepts. • Organized knowledge representations or schemas direct exploration of the environment to sample features of the objects and events to be perceived.
  15. 15. • Reduce the need to sample all of the information available in the environment by providing the perceiver with expectations. • Operate from the top down—from long-term memory to sensory memory—to identify the stimulus.
  16. 16. • Analyze the edges, lines, areas of light and dark, colors, sounds, and other physical features available briefly in sensory memory. • Operate from bottom up—from sensory memory to long- term memory—to achieve the same goal.
  17. 17. • Refers to a single letter being recognized faster in the context of a whole word than when presented as an isolated letter. • Examples: WORK (a word) ORWK (a nonword) K (a single letter) Opponent Challenged by a dangerous opponent The political leader was challenged by a dangerous opponent.
  18. 18. • Refers to the phenomenon that people fail to notice large changes in visual scenes.
  19. 19. • Differentiate objects during pattern recognition. Neural cells in the occipital cortex are tuned to fire when stimulated by simple lines presented at a particular orientation. • Example: searching for letter Z among T, L, K, M, V or • O, Q, P, B, D
  20. 20. • Consider not just features, but also the relations among features, to facilitate pattern recognition.
  21. 21. • Refers to a set of processes that are automatic, fast, encapsulated apart from other cognitive systems, and instantiated in a localized area of the brain.
  22. 22. • Refers to perceiving the whole object. • Perception of faces is unique in that it is more strongly influenced by holistic processing than by analytic processing.
  23. 23. • Refers to perceiving the features that compose the whole. • Analytic processing targets the nose, the eyes, the lips, and other specific features instead of their relations.
  24. 24. • refers to an individual's understanding and interpretation of the face, particularly the human face, especially in relation to the associated information processing in the brain.
  25. 25. • Is a selective inability to recognize faces that does not involve other kinds of vision difficulties. • Example: A sheep farmer had no problem in distinguishing photographs of his own sheep from pictures of other sheep despite their close similarity in appearance. Yet his recognition of human faces was profoundly impaired.
  26. 26. • Is challenging because the acoustic signal for the basic sounds of speech that communicate meaning—phonemes— is highly complex. • is the process by which the sounds of language are heard, interpreted and understood.
  27. 27. • Represent the physical acoustic energy of an utterance by plotting frequency in hertz or cycles per second on the y axis and time in milliseconds on the x axis. • Figure 1: Spectrograms of syllables "dee" (top), "dah" (middle), and "doo" (bottom) showing how the onset formant transitions that define perceptually the consonant [d] differ depending on the identity of the following vowel. (Formants are highlighted by red dotted lines; transitions are the bending beginnings of the
  28. 28. • A speech sound or phonological segment that makes a difference in meaning. • Are coarticulated, meaning that each segment of the acoustic signal provides clues about the identity of more than one phoneme.
  29. 29. • A critical function of the speech processing module is the categorization of speech input at the phonemic level, a phenomenon called categorical perception. • For example, /b/ and /p/ differ in terms of the amount of time elapses between the release of the lips and the onset of voicing.
  30. 30. Kellogg, R. T. (2007). Fundamentals of Cognitive Psychology. SAGE Publications, Inc.

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