Component 3 –
• Teaching methods are means to
achieve the end.
• There is no single best teaching
• Teaching methods should stimulate
the learners desire to develop the
cognitive, affective, psychomotor,
social and spiritual domain of the
Component 3 –
• Learning styles of the students
should be considered.
• Every method should lead to the
development of the learning
• Flexibility should be a consideration
in the use of the teaching methods.
Component 4 –
• Worthen and Sanders (1987)
- all curricula to be effective must
have the element of evaluation.
- Curriculum evaluation refer to the
formal determination of the quality,
effectiveness or value of the
program, process, product of the
Component 4 –
• Tuckman (1985)
- defines evaluation as meeting the
goals and matching them with the
• Context refers to the environment of
• Input refers to the ingredients of
• Process refers to the ways and
means of how the curriculum has
• Product indicates if the curriculum
accomplishes its goals.
Steps in Curriculum the
1. Focus on one particular component
of the curriculum.
2. Collect or gather the information.
3. Organize the information.
4. Analyze information.
5. Report the information.
6. Recycle the information for
continuous feedback, modification
and adjustments to be made.
Interrelationship of the
Components of a Curriculum
• Based on a blueprint
• The learning outcomes are evaluated
in terms of goals and objectives set
at the beginning.
• Aimed to achieve efficiency.
• The change in behavior indicates the
measure of the accomplishments.
• School administrators are less
concerned about the content than
about organization and
• Curriculum managers look at
curriculum changes and innovations as
they administer the resources and
restructure the schools.
Roles of the Curriculum
Supervisors (Ornstein and
• Help develop the school's education
• Plan curriculum with students,
parents, teachers, and other
• Design programs of study by grade
• Plan or schedule classes or school
• Prepare curriculum grades or teacher
guides by grade level or subject area.
• Help in the evaluation and selection
• Observe teachers
• Assist teachers in the
implementation of the curriculum
• Encourage curriculum innovation and
• Develop standards for curriculum and
• The parts of the total school district
or school are examined in terms of how
they relate to each other.
• To George Beauchamp, the systems
theory of education see the following
to be of equal importance are (1)
administration (2) counseling (3)
curriculum (4) instruction and (5)
• Considers the formal or planned
curriculum and the informal or hidden
• The learner is at the center of the
Maria Angela L. Diopol
Prof. Josephine Resquir