Sociological theories and the education system


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Sociological theories and the education system

  1. 1. Sociological Theories and the Education System Emmanuela M. Licayan Educ 3
  2. 2. Theories guide research and policy formulation in the sociology of education They also provide logical explanations for why things happen the way they do. Theories help sociologist understand educational systems
  3. 3. Consensus and Conflict Theory Society has two faces (Dahrendorf; 1959,1968) Sociological Theory should be divided into 2 parts. Conflict Theory and Consensus Theory
  4. 4. Consensus Sees shared norms and values as fundamentals to society Focuses on social order based on tacit agreements. Social change occurs in a slow and orderly fashion
  5. 5. Examines value integration in society Absence of conflict as the equilibrium state A collection of theories in which social order and stability as the base of emphasis Concerned with the maintenance or continuation of social order in relation to norms, values, rules and etc.
  6. 6. Conflict Emphasize the dominance of some social groups Social order as based on manipulation and control by dominant groups Social change is occurring rapidly in a disorderly fashion Subordinate groups overthrow dominant groups
  7. 7. Examines conflict of interest and the coercion that holds society Disagreement or clash between opposing sides, principles, or people It can be overt or covert conflict Focuses on the heterogeneous nature of society and the unequal distribution of political and social power.
  8. 8. Struggle between social classes Asks how schools contribute to the unequal distribution of people into jobs in society More powerful members of society maintain the best positions Less powerful group (women, racial and ethnic group) are allocated to lower ranks
  9. 9. Education plays a big part in maintaining the prestige, power, and economic and social position of dominant group in the society Social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tensions between competing groups. It needs not to be violent
  10. 10. Emergence of conflict and what causes conflict Conflict theory deals with the incompatible aspects of society and how they clash with one another Interested in how society institutions (family, gov’t religion, education and media) helps to maintain the privileges of some groups.
  11. 11. Emphasis in social change and redistribution of resources makes conflict theories more radical and activist than functionalist.
  12. 12. Structural Functionalism Talcott Parsons, Robert Merton, and others proposed the ideas of Structural Functionalism and was dominant for many years. Declined dramatically in the last 3 decades due to the existence of conflict theorist
  13. 13. Parson’s AGIL System Four functional imperatives for “all” action systems. Adaptation: System must cope with external situations, adapt to its environment and adapt environment to its needs
  14. 14. Goal Attainment : A system must define and achieve its primary goals Integration: regulate the interrelationship of its component parts. Manage the relationship among other 3 functional imperative (A.G.L) Latency: Furnish, maintain and renew both the motivation of individuals and the cultural patterns that create and sustain motivation
  15. 15. AGIL system was designed for all levels, the behavioral organism is the action system that handles the adaptation function by adjusting and transforming the external world. Personality system performs the goal attainment by defining system goals and mobilizing resources
  16. 16. Social system copes with the integration of function by controlling its component parts. Cultural system performs the latency function by providing the norms and values that motivates them for action.
  17. 17. Cultural system Social System Action System Personality System
  18. 18. Assumptions Systems have the property of order and interdependence of parts Systems tend toward self maintaining order (equilibrium) The system may be static or involved in the ordered process of change The nature of one part has an impact on the form that other parts can take
  19. 19. System maintains boundaries with their environment Allocation and integration are two fundamental processes for equilibrium Self maintenance involving the maintenance of relationships, control of environment and control of tendencies to change the system from within
  20. 20. Social System Consist of plurality of individual actors interacting with each other with at least physical or environmental aspect.
  21. 21. Functional requisites of a Social System Must be structured so that they may operate compatibly with other systems To survive, it must have the requisite from other systems Must meet a significant proportion of needs of its actors Must elicit adequate participation from its members Must have minimum control over disruptive behaviors
  22. 22. Disruptive conflict must be controlled A social system requires a language to survive
  23. 23. Key Principles of Functionalist Perspective Interdependency- every part is dependent to some extent to other parts Functions of Social Structure and CultureSocial Structure- organization of the society Culture- Set of beliefs, language, rules, values and knowledge held in a common set of members.
  24. 24. Consensus and Cooperation Consensus-certain values that nearly everyone agrees upon, societies tend toward consensus to achieve cooperation Equilibrium
  25. 25. Structural-Functional Model
  26. 26. Interactionist Theories Relation of School and society are critiques and extensions of the functionalist and conflict perspectives Interpretable snapshot of what schools are like on an everyday level Micro-sociological level of analysis Noticing taken-for-granted behaviors Implicit assumptions for usually unnoticed interactions
  27. 27. Symbolic Interactionism Views the self as socially constructed in relation to social forces and social structures Social self is an active product of human agency rather that a deterministic product of social structure. All types of interaction refines our ability to think Not all interaction involves thinking
  28. 28. Principles Human beings are endowed with a capacity for thought The capacity for thought is shaped by social interaction People learn the meanings and the symbols in social interactions Meanings and symbols allow people to carry on distinctively human action and interaction
  29. 29. People are able to modify or alter meanings and symbols that they use on the basis of their interpretation of the situation People are able to make these changes it is part of their ability to interact within themselves, allows them to examine possible courses of action, asses their relative advantages and disadvantages and choose one Intertwined patterns of action and interaction make up groups and societies
  30. 30. Non-Symbolic Interactionism Differentiation made by Blumer between two basic forms of interaction. ◦ Nonsymbolic interaction- conversation of gestures does not involve thinking ◦ Symbolic interaction- requires mental process
  31. 31. Premises People act towards the thing they encounter based on what those things mean to them We learn what things are by observing how other people respond to them As a result of ongoing interaction, sounds or words, gestures, facial expressions and body postures we used with dealing with others acquire symbolic meanings that are shared by people who belong to the same culture.
  32. 32. Importance of thinking to symbolic interactionist is reflected in their view on objects. 3 types of objects ◦ Physical ◦ Social ◦ Abstract
  33. 33. Different objects have different meanings for different individuals. “A tree will be a different object to a botanist, a lumberman, a poet and a home gardener” Looking-glass Self ◦ We see ourselves as other see us - Charles Cooley