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100 yearswar

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100 yearswar

  1. 1. How long did it last?
  2. 2. 1347 - 1453
  3. 3. A FAMILY SQUABBLE? IN 1328 CHARLES IV…THE FRENCH KING…DIED WITH NO HEIR…NOT HAIR READ CAREFULLY! IN ENGLAND EDWARD III, HIS GRANDSON, WAS KING…OKAY, SO HE WAS ONLY 13, SO WHAT? HIS MOM ISABELLA…SHE WAS THE DAUGHTER OF THE DEAD FRENCH KING CHARLES (ARE YOU KEEPING UP?)…WANTED HER SON TO BE KING OF ENGLAND AND FRANCE…GREEDY, GREEDY! THE FRENCH NOBILITY DID NOT WANT AN ENGLISHMAN…OR BOY…ON THEIR THRONE AND SO THEY CHOSE THE DEAD KINGS COUSIN PHILIP OF VALOIS IN FACT THE FRENCH NOBILITY CROWNED PHILIP KING EDWARD DECLARES WAR!!! HE WAS 13 DO YOU THINK HE MEANT IT? BOTH WANTED GLORY AND PRESTIGE…BOTH WANTED THEIR OWN WAY…BOTH USED THEIR NATIONS TO SATISFY THEIR OWN DESIRES
  4. 4. CAUSES CONTINUED NOBLES ON BOTH SIDES WERE PROMISED LOOT, PLUNDER, LAND, AND BOOTY! WAR HAD BEEN A KNIGHTLY AFFAIR…KNIGHT IN ARMOR AGAINST KNIGHT IN ARMOR…YOU HACKED YOUR OPPONENT TO PIECES IN A CIVILISED WAY! ENGLAND CHEATED…THEY HAD A BRAND NEW SECRET WEAPON… THE LONGBOW, AT THE BATTLES OF CRECY, POITIERS, AND AGINCOURT, SLAUGHTERED THE FRENCH NOBILITY. DURING THE 116 YEARS of the 100 YEARS WAR…HUH? THERE WERE 68 YEARS OF RELATIVE PEACE AND 44 YEARS OF FIGHTING THE EFFECTS WERE HUGE! PATRIOTISM WAS BORN…PEOPLE STARTED SEEING THEMSELVES AS ENGLISHMEN OR FRENCHMEN THE GOVERNMENTS TOOK ADVANTAGE AND RAISED TAXES… PROPAGANDA IS BORN IN CHURCH PULPITS
  5. 5. WAR MEANS OPPORTUNITY TO MAKE MONEY NOBILITY INFLUENCE DECLINES, BECAUSE SO MANY HAVE BEEN KILLED, AND THIS DECLINE WILL LEAD TO THE KINGS TAKING MORE POWER THIS IS HUGE…THE KINGS ARE NOW IN TOTAL CHARGE…THEY DO NOT NEED TO ASK THE NOBLES FOR MONEY ANY MORE IT’S GOOD TO BE THE KING! THEY TAKE CONTROL OF THE COUNTRY BY PUTTING PEOPLE LOYAL TO THEM IN POSITIONS OF POWER… SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, JUDGES, TAX COLLECTORS… THIS CENTRALIZING OF GOVERNMENT WILL GIVE THE KINGS ULTIMATE POWER IT IS ALSO THE BEGINNING OF THE END OF FEUDALISM…YEAH, THE SERFS WILL SOON BE FREE… DUDE! REMEMBER THE CENTRALIZING OF GOVERNMENT THEME IT IS TRES, TRES, IMPORTANT!!!
  6. 6. 1. Controversy Over Succession selected The French nobility Philip of Valois, a cousin of the last king through the male line…handsome dude no? Y He founded a new French dynasty that ruled through the 16century…Valois Y He was chosen in preference to King Edward III of England, whose mother was the daughter of the late king, Charles IV. In 1340, Edward claimed the title “King of France.”…what a nerve!
  7. 7. FRENCH LAND BELONGS TO BRITISH KINGS A longer standing issue was the status of lands within France that belonged to English kings…remember William the conqueror and Eleanor of Aquitaine? Edward was actually a vassal of Philip’s, holding sizable French territories as fiefs from the king of France [it went back to the Norman conquest and Henry II’s conquest of Eleanor].
  8. 8. Conflict Over Flanders The ‘dagger’ pointing at the ‘heart’ of England! Wool industry…lots of money in those sheep…bah, bah. Flanders wants its independence from French control…what do we call Flanders today? They ask England for help.
  9. 9. 4. A Struggle for National Identity France was NOT a united country before the war began. The French king only controlled about half of the country.
  10. 10. Military Characteristics The War was a series of short raids and expeditions. A few major battles, marked off by truces or ineffective treaties. Y The relative strengths of each country dictated the sporadic nature of the struggle. Y The English had the Longbow And the French had garlic
  11. 11. French Advantages Population of about 16,000,000. Far richer and more populous than England. At one point, the French fielded an army of over 50,000  at most, Britain mustered only 32,000… Ah yes, but is it the size of the dog in the fight or is it the size of the fight in the dog?
  12. 12. British Advantages Weapons Technologies…the _______ In almost every engagement, the British were outnumbered. Y Britain’s most successful strategies: / / Avoid pitched battles. Engage in quick, profitable raids     Steal what you can. Destroy everything else. Capture enemy knights to hold for ransom. Sounds fair to me!
  13. 13. The Longbow as a Weapon The English set up a defensive position and then lured the French into attacking…so they could unleash the longbow…at distance. Its arrows had more penetrating power than a bolt from a crossbow. Y Could pierce an inch of wood or the armor of a knight at 200 yards! A longbow could be fired more rapidly. Y 6 arrows per minute.
  14. 14. The British Longbow: The Battle of Poitiers, 1356
  15. 15. Early English Victories
  16. 16. The Effective Use of the Cannon at Poitiers, 1356
  17. 17. King Henry V (r. 1412-1422) Renewed his family’s claim to the French throne. At Agincourt in 1415, the English, led by Henry himself, goaded a larger French army into attacking a fortified English position. Y With the aid of the dukes of Burgundy, Henry gained control over Normandy, Paris, and much of northern France!
  18. 18. A Burgundian Presence
  19. 19. Height of English Dominance And then…
  20. 20. The French “Reconquest” Y Even though in 1428 the military and political power seemed firmly in British hands, the French reversed the situation. In 1429, with the aid of the mysterious Joan of Arc, the French king, Charles VII, was able to raise the English siege of Orleans. Y This began the reconquest of the north of France.
  21. 21. Joan of Arc (1412-1432) The daughter of prosperous peasants from an area of Burgundy that had suffered under the English…she was a milk maid and she heard voices! Like many medieval mystics, she reported regular visions of divine revelation. Y Her “voices” told her to go to the king and assist him in driving out the English. She dressed like a man and was Charles’ most charismatic and feared military leader! It’s lucky she was French… In France they gave her an army…for hearing voices and dressing like a Here in the States we would have put her man… on medication and sent her
  22. 22. Cannons Used at Orleans
  23. 23. Joan Announces the Capture of Orleans to the King
  24. 24. Joan of Arc (1412-1432) She brought inspiration and a sense of national identity and self-confidence. With her aid, the king was crowned at Reims [ending the “disinheritance”]. She was captured during an attack on Paris and fell into English hands. Y Because of her “unnatural dress” and claim to divine guidance, she was condemned and burned as a heretic in 1432. Y She instantly became a symbol of French resistance.
  25. 25. Joan as a “Feminist” Symbol Today? No, I don’t know who Martha is!
  26. 26. The End of the War Despite Joan’s capture, the French advance continued. By 1450 the English had lost all their major centers except Calais. In 1453 the French armies captured the last English-held fortress. Y This was the last battle of the war. There was no treaty, only a cessation of hostilities.
  27. 27. France Becomes Unified! France in 1453 France in 1337
  28. 28. Now show me what you know…. Questions: Why did the nobility experience instability in the Late Middle Ages?  In what ways did that instability lead to the Hundred Years' War? Regarding the Hundred Years' War: - What were its causes? - Why did the war continue for so long a period in the 14c? - What advantages did each side possess? - What were the results of the war in the 14c for England and France? How did the role of representative institutions differ in France and England during and after the Hundred Years' War?  Why? What role did Joan of Arc play in the Hundred Years' War?  How was her fate an example of a medieval response to a political problem? On the basis of the passage in your textbook, did misogyny play a role in the trial and execution of Joan of Arc? What were the long-term ramifications of the Hundred Years' War for England and for France? Why did the English nobility fight the War of the Roses?  What was its outcome? Identify the major "power centers" in 14c Italy [be sure to list their strengths and weaknesses, different types of government structures, and the types of societies and trade/business enterprises characterized each state.] In what ways were the states of Italy able to gain relative stability during the 15c?

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