By Comenius team of 5th Lyceum of Veria,Greece. Comenius multilateral partnership 2011-2013
Eutrophication is the enrichment of an ecosystemwith chemical nutrients, typically compoundscontaining nitrogen, phosphorus, or both.
The word derives from the greekwords “ευ”(eu- good) and “τροφή”(trofi-food )
natural run-off of nutrients from the soil andthe weathering of rocks run-off of inorganic fertilisers (containingnitrates and phosphates) run-off of manure from farms (containingnitrates, phosphates and ammonia)
run-off from erosion (following mining,construction work or poor land use) discharge of detergents (containingphosphates) discharge of partially treated or untreatedsewage (containing nitrates and phosphates)
Ecological impactThe impact of eutrophication on biodiversity. The impact on animal biodiversity isof concern. By lowering the ecological integrity of an ecosystem, only the moretolerant animal species can survive.Aesthetic impactEutrofication can cause unpleasant odours. This is often a problem in urbanareas where people live close to the affected water body. If the water is being usedfor water treatment purposes, various taste and odour problems can occur. Theselower the perceived quality of the treated water, although do not cause humanhealth problems.Human health impactsPeople who are exposed to odours from waterways contaminated with decayingalgae of cyanobacteria may suffer chronic ill-health effects.Economic impactsthe costs of water treatment areincreased in order to avoidtaste, odour and cyanotoxin problems in the treated water.
Eutrophication can be avoided by using minimalrequired amounts of chemical fertilizers or better stilldo away with them and use natural ones instead. Be sure not to have the fields close to the water bodies. Take extra care while using fertilizers duringmonsoons as due to run-off, they get transmitted to thewater bodies. Then, they can cause blockage ofwaterways, death of marine life and breakage of foodchain. Make sure no run off from farms (nitrates etc) enterthe pond. Also factories shouldnt dump their wasteinto the pond