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  1. 1. Pengantar Semiotika Grace Swestin Universitas Kristen Petra
  2. 2. Hari ini (4-3-2008) <ul><li>Lanskap teori komunikasi </li></ul><ul><li>Tempat semiotika dalam teori komunikasi </li></ul><ul><li>Semiotika: definisi </li></ul><ul><li>Semiotika: konsep-konsep pengantar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jakobson’s model of communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchorage (Roland Barthes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Order of signification </li></ul><ul><li>Semiotika: konsep-konsep kunci </li></ul>
  3. 3. Komunikasi dan Teori Komunikasi <ul><li>Komunikasi: transmisi informasi dari satu pihak ke pihak yang lain </li></ul><ul><li>Ilmu komunikasi adalah bidang ilmu yang relatif baru </li></ul><ul><li>Maksim Laswell merupakan definisi : who says what to whom with what effect </li></ul><ul><li>Teori komunikasi: berfungsi untuk menggambarkan dan menjelaskan komunikasi </li></ul>
  4. 4. Lanskap Teori Komunikasi Communication Speech/ interpersonal communication Mass communication
  5. 5. COMMUNICATION RESEARCH Intercultural/ international communication Small group communication Communication technology Policy/legal studies of communication Telecommunication etc
  6. 6. Traditions of Communication Theory (Robert Craig) <ul><li>Rhetorical </li></ul><ul><li>Semiotic </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenological </li></ul><ul><li>Cybernetics </li></ul><ul><li>Sociopsychological </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural </li></ul><ul><li>These traditions tend to reinforce one another. Each is also divided against the others but all are cohesive approaches to describing communication behavior. </li></ul>
  7. 7. SEMIOTICS <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Semiotics studies media content and analyzes meaning in communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Semiotics is basically defined as a theory of signs . </li></ul><ul><li>It studies the processes of meaning making and seeks to break the code of non-verbal meaning that resides in the structure of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of semiotics is to explain visual signs, i.e. to explain visual signs and how they perpetuate (or not) the dominant cultural values. </li></ul>
  8. 8. SEMIOTICS <ul><li>Introductory concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Jakobson’s model of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Codes </li></ul><ul><li>Anchorage (Roland Barthes) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Jakobson’s Model of Communication Addresser Addressee Message Context Contact Code
  10. 12. Codes <ul><li>Codes: Objects, symbols or practices with generally agreed upon (consensual) meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>Codes and communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every form of communication has its own systems of codes--objects, symbols, practices with consensually agreed upon meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codes are learned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codes change as society changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different societies have different norms or conventions of codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is not about truth. It is about consensus. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. Non-verbal codes (Michael Argyle) <ul><li>Facial Expression </li></ul><ul><li>Gaze </li></ul><ul><li>Bodily Posture </li></ul><ul><li>Bodily Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Clothes and Appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal aspects of speech </li></ul>
  12. 15. Anchorage (Roland Barthes) <ul><li>Anchorage: the process of affixing meanings. In the context of the mass media, anchorage can be referred to as the process by which preferred meanings are encoded in various media texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts involved in anchorage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denotation: What the image is. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connotation: What the image means. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Polysemic Nature of Images: They are endowed with multiple, equally valid meanings </li></ul></ul>
  13. 18. SEMIOTICS <ul><li>Key concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning resides in the structure of communication </li></ul><ul><li>SIGN = Signifier + Signified </li></ul>
  14. 19. Order of signification <ul><li>1st Order of Signification: Denotation </li></ul><ul><li>2nd Order of Signification: Connotation / Context and Association </li></ul><ul><li>MYTH: Connotations passed off as denotations; as natural. </li></ul>