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Customer Relationship 
Management 
Ritesh Lal
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) 
CRM is “the development and maintenance of mutually beneficial 
long-term relationships with strategically significant customers” 
CRM is a business philosophy based on upon individual customers 
and customised products and services supported by open lines of 
communication and feedback from the participating firms that 
mutually benefit both buying and selling organisations.
Degree of Relationship 
Building 
 Basic Marketing 
 Reactive Marketing 
 Accountable Marketing 
 Partnership Marketing
Determinants of CRM 
Trust 
The willingness to rely on the ability, integrity, and motivation of 
one company to serve the needs of the customer as agreed 
upon. 
Value 
The ability of a selling organisation to satisfy the needs of the 
customer at a comparatively lower cost or higher benefit than 
that offered by competitors and measured in monetary, 
temporal, functional and psychological terms.
Determinants of CRM 
In addition to Trust and Value, sales people must: 
Understand customer needs and problems; 
Meet their commitments; 
Provide superior after sales support; 
Make sure that the customer is always told the truth ; and 
Have a passionate interest in establishing and retaining a long-term 
relationship
Stages in the development of a Customer Relationship 
The Pre-relationship Stage 
The event that triggers a buyer to seek a new business partner. 
The Early Stage 
Experience is accumulated between the buyer and seller although a great 
degree of uncertainty and distance exists. 
The Development Stage 
Increased levels of transactions lead to a higher degree of commitment 
and 
the distance is reduced to a social exchange. 
The Long-term Stage 
Characterised by the companies’ mutual importance to each other. 
The Final Stage 
The interaction between the companies becomes institutionalized.
A Relationship Life Cycle Model 
High cooperation 
Low competition 
Low cooperation 
High competition 
Time 
Pre-relationship 
stage 
Development 
stage 
Maturity 
stage 
Decline 
stage 
(Wilkinson and Young, 1997)
Functions of Customer Relationship Management 
Direct functions (are the basic requirements of a company that are 
necessary to survive in the competitive marketplace) 
Profit 
Volume and 
Safeguard 
Indirect functions (are the actions necessary to convince the 
customer to participate in various marketing activities). 
Innovation 
Market
The role of salespeople as relationship builders and promoters 
Role of Salespeople: 
Identifying potential customers and their needs; 
Approaching key decision makers in the buying firm; 
Negotiating and advancing dialogue and mutual trust; 
Coordinating the cooperation between the customers and 
their company; 
Encouraging the inter-organisational learning process; 
contributing to constructive resolution of existing conflicts; and 
leading the customer relationship development team (They are the 
individuals in any organisation who act both as relationship 
builders and as relationship promoters.
Models of Customer Relationship Management 
The Evans and Luskin (1994) model for effective 
Relationship Marketing 
Relationship marketing inputs 
•Understanding customer expectations 
•Building service partnerships 
•Empowering employees 
•Total quality management 
Relationship marketing outcomes 
•Customer Satisfaction 
•Customer loyalty 
•Quality products 
•Increased profitability 
Assessment state 
•Customer feedback 
•Integration 
(Evans and Luskin, 1994)
Managing Customer Relationships 
The global salesperson must be involved in the following activities in order to initiate, 
develop and enhance the process that is aimed at building trust and commitment with the 
customer. 
Initiating the relationship 
Engage in strategic prospecting and qualifying; 
Gather and study pre-call information; 
Identify buying influences; 
Plan the initial sales call; 
Demonstrate an understanding of the customer’s needs; 
Identify opportunities to build a relationship; and 
Illustrate the value of a relationship with the customer
Managing Customer Relationships 
The global salesperson must be involved in the following activities in order to initiate, 
develop and enhance the process that is aimed at building trust and commitment with the 
customer. 
Developing the relationship 
Select an appropriate offering; 
Customise the relationship; 
Link the solutions with the customer’s needs; 
Discuss customer concerns; 
Summarize the solution to confirm benefits; and 
Secure commitment.
Managing Customer Relationships 
The global salesperson must be involved in the following activities in order to initiate, 
develop and enhance the process that is aimed at building trust and commitment with the 
customer. 
Enhancing the relationship 
Assess customer satisfaction; 
Take action to ensure satisfaction; 
Maintain open, two-way communication; and 
Work to add value and enhance mutual opportunities.
Relationship networks 
The ultimate outcome of a successful CRM strategy is the 
creation 
of a unique company asset known as a relationship network. 
A relationship network consists of the company and its major 
customers with whom the company has established long and 
enduring business relationships. 
The additional aspects of a global salesperson’s job are to: 
Manage customer value; 
Act as customer advocate; and 
Enhance customer loyalty and build a “healthy” and 
profitable network of relationships.
Summary 
CRM is a new business philosophy based on trust and value; 
The core function of CRM is the value creation process; 
Customer relationships develop over time; 
The role of global salespeople in the process is that of both 
relationship builders and relationship promoters; and 
The basic premise of CRM is to offer superior value to 
customers in an effort to turn prospects into customers, 
customers into loyal customers, and loyal customers into 
partners.
Thank You!

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Customer relationship

  • 2. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) CRM is “the development and maintenance of mutually beneficial long-term relationships with strategically significant customers” CRM is a business philosophy based on upon individual customers and customised products and services supported by open lines of communication and feedback from the participating firms that mutually benefit both buying and selling organisations.
  • 3. Degree of Relationship Building  Basic Marketing  Reactive Marketing  Accountable Marketing  Partnership Marketing
  • 4. Determinants of CRM Trust The willingness to rely on the ability, integrity, and motivation of one company to serve the needs of the customer as agreed upon. Value The ability of a selling organisation to satisfy the needs of the customer at a comparatively lower cost or higher benefit than that offered by competitors and measured in monetary, temporal, functional and psychological terms.
  • 5. Determinants of CRM In addition to Trust and Value, sales people must: Understand customer needs and problems; Meet their commitments; Provide superior after sales support; Make sure that the customer is always told the truth ; and Have a passionate interest in establishing and retaining a long-term relationship
  • 6. Stages in the development of a Customer Relationship The Pre-relationship Stage The event that triggers a buyer to seek a new business partner. The Early Stage Experience is accumulated between the buyer and seller although a great degree of uncertainty and distance exists. The Development Stage Increased levels of transactions lead to a higher degree of commitment and the distance is reduced to a social exchange. The Long-term Stage Characterised by the companies’ mutual importance to each other. The Final Stage The interaction between the companies becomes institutionalized.
  • 7. A Relationship Life Cycle Model High cooperation Low competition Low cooperation High competition Time Pre-relationship stage Development stage Maturity stage Decline stage (Wilkinson and Young, 1997)
  • 8. Functions of Customer Relationship Management Direct functions (are the basic requirements of a company that are necessary to survive in the competitive marketplace) Profit Volume and Safeguard Indirect functions (are the actions necessary to convince the customer to participate in various marketing activities). Innovation Market
  • 9. The role of salespeople as relationship builders and promoters Role of Salespeople: Identifying potential customers and their needs; Approaching key decision makers in the buying firm; Negotiating and advancing dialogue and mutual trust; Coordinating the cooperation between the customers and their company; Encouraging the inter-organisational learning process; contributing to constructive resolution of existing conflicts; and leading the customer relationship development team (They are the individuals in any organisation who act both as relationship builders and as relationship promoters.
  • 10. Models of Customer Relationship Management The Evans and Luskin (1994) model for effective Relationship Marketing Relationship marketing inputs •Understanding customer expectations •Building service partnerships •Empowering employees •Total quality management Relationship marketing outcomes •Customer Satisfaction •Customer loyalty •Quality products •Increased profitability Assessment state •Customer feedback •Integration (Evans and Luskin, 1994)
  • 11. Managing Customer Relationships The global salesperson must be involved in the following activities in order to initiate, develop and enhance the process that is aimed at building trust and commitment with the customer. Initiating the relationship Engage in strategic prospecting and qualifying; Gather and study pre-call information; Identify buying influences; Plan the initial sales call; Demonstrate an understanding of the customer’s needs; Identify opportunities to build a relationship; and Illustrate the value of a relationship with the customer
  • 12. Managing Customer Relationships The global salesperson must be involved in the following activities in order to initiate, develop and enhance the process that is aimed at building trust and commitment with the customer. Developing the relationship Select an appropriate offering; Customise the relationship; Link the solutions with the customer’s needs; Discuss customer concerns; Summarize the solution to confirm benefits; and Secure commitment.
  • 13. Managing Customer Relationships The global salesperson must be involved in the following activities in order to initiate, develop and enhance the process that is aimed at building trust and commitment with the customer. Enhancing the relationship Assess customer satisfaction; Take action to ensure satisfaction; Maintain open, two-way communication; and Work to add value and enhance mutual opportunities.
  • 14. Relationship networks The ultimate outcome of a successful CRM strategy is the creation of a unique company asset known as a relationship network. A relationship network consists of the company and its major customers with whom the company has established long and enduring business relationships. The additional aspects of a global salesperson’s job are to: Manage customer value; Act as customer advocate; and Enhance customer loyalty and build a “healthy” and profitable network of relationships.
  • 15. Summary CRM is a new business philosophy based on trust and value; The core function of CRM is the value creation process; Customer relationships develop over time; The role of global salespeople in the process is that of both relationship builders and relationship promoters; and The basic premise of CRM is to offer superior value to customers in an effort to turn prospects into customers, customers into loyal customers, and loyal customers into partners.