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Elizabeth project

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Elizabeth project

  1. 1. Elizabeth lopez corrales<br />
  2. 2. U1.Questionforms<br />*Directquestions:<br />a)yes/no questions<br />1.Use do/does/did<br />2.Verbs whitbe, can, have(got) dontneedtheauxiliary<br />3.Negatives yes/no questionsexpect a particular answer.<br />e.g.didyoulikethemovie?<br />b)wh-questions<br />1.Question words(who,where,when,why,whose,what,how,which) at thebeginning.<br />2.If who,what,whichisthesubject, wedont use theauxiliary<br />3.If thereis a prepositionit comes at theend of thequestion<br />e.g.whogaveyouthe tickets?<br />c)Alternativequestions<br />There are 2 types of alternativequestions, yes/no type & wh-type<br />e.g. =do youwanttogooutoryou are goingtostudy?<br /> = which color youlikethemostpinkorblue ?<br />INDIRECT QUESTIONS<br />Use statementwordorder, tobe more polite<br />Commonways of startingindirect q.:<br />I’dliketoknow,couldyoutell me, wouldyoumindtelling me, do youknow.<br />e.g.: =i’dliketoknowifyoulike pizza, =couldyoutell me whenistheexam.<br />
  3. 3. c)Alternativequestions<br />There are 2 types of alternativequestions, yes/no type & wh-type<br />e.g. =do youwanttogooutoryou are goingtostudy?<br /> = which color youlikethemostpinkorblue ?<br />INDIRECT QUESTIONS<br />Use statementwordorder, tobe more polite<br />Commonways of startingindirect q.:<br />I’dliketoknow,couldyoutell me, wouldyoumindtelling me, do youknow.<br />e.g.: =i’dliketoknowifyoulike pizza, =couldyoutell me whenistheexam.<br />QUESTION TAGS..<br />Short questions at theend of a statement<br />1.Positive statement + negativequestiontag<br />e.g.youlikepizza,dontyou?<br />2.Negative statement + positive questiontag.<br />e.g.youdidntunderstand me, didyou ?<br />
  4. 4. Prepositions of place,time& movement<br />*In time:<br />At= use forclocktime,weekends,holidays<br />e.g.Atmidnight,at christmas<br />In=usedforthemainparts of theday,months, year,seasons,..<br />e.g.in april, in thesummer<br />On=use forspecificdates & days<br />e.g.onSaturday, on23rd april<br />*place<br />At=shows a point in spacewheresthis happening<br />e.g.Atschool, at home<br />In=shows thatsthtaking place isinside.<br />e.G in bed, in the new york<br />On= shows thatsthtaking place isoutside.<br />e.g.on page, on tv.<br />*movement..<br />At= to show thepersonorthingtheactionisaimed at.<br />e.g.everybody look at me,hethrewtheball at me<br />To= e.g.whosendthehwtoyou, i traveltohermosillolastweek.<br />Into=i walkedinto my home, i gotintotheclassroom<br />Towards= he walktowards me, thedogruntowardstheboy<br />
  5. 5. *movement..<br />At= to show thepersonorthingtheactionisaimed at.<br />e.g.everybody look at me,hethrewtheball at me<br />To= e.g.whosendthehwtoyou, i traveltohermosillolastweek.<br />Into=i walkedinto my home, i gotintotheclassroom<br />Towards= he walktowards me, thedogruntowardstheboy<br />*at theend/in theend<br />e.g. at theend of theday i wastired, in theendwefound my home<br />
  6. 6. U.2.Present simple& presentcontinuous<br />**Present simple…<br />We use p.s :<br />1.with routineactions<br />2.in time caluseswith a futuremeaningafterwhen,assoon as, if, until.<br />3.when we are talkingaboutpermanentsituations<br />4.when we are talkingaboutthefuture<br />5.with scientificfacts<br />6.with stateverbswhich are notnormallyused in cont.forms<br />E.g. i gotoschooleveryday, do youlikethemovie?<br />**presentcontinuous<br />We use p.cwhen:<br />1.actions happening now<br />2.changing situations<br />3.temporary situations<br />4.plans in thefuture<br />5.annoying habitswithalways<br />E.g.. I’mdoing my hw., he alwaysannoys me.<br />
  7. 7. Modifiers..<br />**Fairly…<br />Usuallymodifiesadjectives &adverbs, itdoesntsuggest a highdegree.<br />e.g..i fairlylike pizza but i wanttoeat sushi.<br />**quite..<br />Suggest a higherdegreethan fairly.it can beusedwith a/an + noun.it can modifyverbs&nouns as well as adjetives and adverbs.<br />e.g..she’s quite smartforherage.<br />**pretty..<br />Isstrongertha quite.it can suggest more thanwasexpected.<br />e.g.its a prettybighouse.<br />
  8. 8. **bit…<br />Isoftenusedwiththesamemeaning as a little.<br />e.g..He is a little bit tallthan me<br />**really..<br />Isusedto show emphasis.<br />e.g. i reallyenjoy my party<br />**extremelly, incredebly,terribly…<br />They are used in a similar waytovery, butthey are strongerthanvery.<br />e.g.iwasterriblyscared at the film.<br />
  9. 9. U.3comparison<br />*to a higherdegree(comparativeform + than)<br />e.g.im olderthan my brother.<br />*Tothesamedegree(as..as)<br />e.g.My camera is as expensive as my sister camera<br />*to a lowerdegree(withless + than & theleast)<br />e.g.sheisthelessinterestedongoingtothepartythanshewas.<br />*(not)as..as<br />We use not as..as to compare thingswhich are different.<br />e.g.This short isnot as expensive as itusedtobe.<br />We use as..as.. To compare thingswhich are thesame.<br />e.g. he is as intellingent as hisbrother.<br />
  10. 10. Reflexives&own<br />*reflexives<br />There are 3 waysto use reflexives:<br />1.When theobjectisthesame as thesubject.<br />2.When youwanttoemphasisethesubject<br />3.With byto mean alone.<br />e.g.istudymyselffortheexam, they do theworkbythemselves.<br />*own<br />We use own:<br />1. To mean withoutthehelppfothers.<br />2.To mean alone<br />3.To mean belongingto no otherperson<br />e.g. i organizethepartyon my own, i found my own bag.<br />
  11. 11. U.4.<br />*Past simple. (verb + ed)<br />We use p.s.:<br />1.To talkaboutevents in thepastthat are nowfinished.<br />2.To talkabouthabits in thepast<br />3.To talkaboutsituations in thepast<br />4.In reportedspeech<br />e.G . Theteachersaidthatthe final projectwasfortomorrow.<br />*pastcontinuous..(was/were+ -ing)<br />Totalkabountactions in progress in thepast<br />totalkabouttemporarysituations in thepast<br />totalkaboutanticipatedeventsthtadidnothappen<br />totalkaboutaneventthatwas in progresswhenanothereventhappened.<br />totalkaboutactions in progress at thesame time in thepast.<br />e.g. i washavingdinnerwhen he called me.<br />
  12. 12. ** pastperfect simple(had + pastparticiple)<br />1.To referto a time earlierthananotherpast time<br />2.In reportedspeech<br />e.g. he said he hadalreadyfinishtheproject.<br />*pastperfectcontinuous.(hadbeen + -ing)<br />1.To talkaboutactionswhichhadcontinued up ti thepastmomentthatwe are thinkingabout<br />e.g.ihadbeenworkingon my final project.<br />
  13. 13. Time conjunctions<br />*WHILE..<br /> Describe towlongeractionsgoingon at thesame time..<br />e.G .. While i wasplaying, my momwascooking me sth.<br />*AS..<br />Talkabouttwosituationswhichchangetogether<br />e.g. As i getolder , my parentsgive me more freedom.<br />*WHEN..<br />Torefertoperiods of life<br />e.g.when i wasonvacations i slepttoo late.<br />*EVENTUALLY, FINALLY..<br />Mean in theend. Tosaythatsthhappensafter a long time oreffort.<br />e.g.iwastoonervousbecausetheexam,eventuallyitwasveryeasy.<br />
  14. 14. *AT FIRST & TO BEING WITH<br />Refertothebeginning of a situation, tomakecontrastwithsthdifferentthathappenslater.<br />e.g. At firstwewereverystressedabouttheexam. Butafterdoingitwewererelaxed<br />*AS SOON AS AND THEN<br />Totalkabouttowactionsoreventsthathappenveryquicklyoneaftertheother.<br />e.g. as soon as i lefttheparty, he arrived.<br />*AFTER..<br />Isnotusuallyusedalone.insteadwe use otherexpressionslikeasterwardsorafterthat.<br />e.g.we are goingtohavedinnerafterthatwe are goingto a party<br />*BY THE TIME…<br />Meansnotlaterthan.<br />e.g. i willhavefinisheddoing my projectbythe time youstartdoingyours.<br />
  15. 15. U.5modals<br />*CAN..<br />Toaskfor & givepermission.<br />e.g. Can i borrowyourpencil ?<br />*COULD..<br />Toaskforpermissionwhenyou are notsurewhattheanswerwillbe<br />e.g.couldyoucall my mom ?<br />*MAY.<br />Toaskfororgivepermission in formal situations.<br />e.g.May i come in ?<br />*SHOULD AND OUGHT TO..<br />Totalkaboutobligations and duties in thefuture, present, past.<br />e.g.Youshouldgotothe doctor, yououghtbuy a birthdaypresenttoyourfather.<br />*MUST..<br />1.To talkaboutpresent & futurestrongobligationsthat come fromthe speaker.<br />2.Ask aboutwhatthelistenerwantsyouto do.<br />3.Tell peoplenotto do things.<br />e.g.youmuststudyforyouexams.<br />*NEEDNT,DONT NEED TO, DONT HAVE TO..<br />Totalkabout a lack of obligation in thepresentorfuture.<br />e.g.youdontneedtostayaftertheexam.<br />
  16. 16. Usedto & would<br />*Usedto …<br />Totalkaboutpasthabits and statesthat do notoccurnow.<br />e.G.. When i wasyoung i usedtoplaywithdolls.,, when i was at primaryschool i usedtoplayvolleyball.<br />*Would..<br />Isalsousedtotalkaboutpasthabits and repeatedactionsbutnotaboutpaststates.<br />e.g. .. Afterthe semestral exams i wouldgotohavebreakfast..,, when i wasyoung i wouldgototheranchafterschoolonfridays.<br />

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