Deep Foundation (Construction Engineering)

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1st presentation of my life . It was a group presentation . Thanks to all of our group members for there contribution.

This presentation is all about Deep Foundation. Hope you will find it important.

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Deep Foundation (Construction Engineering)

  1. 1. WE THE GROUP MEMBERS: • MD. BULBUL AHMED •MD.SHARIFUL ISLAM •MD.YOUSUF BIN AZIZ •ABU SAYED MD.TARIN •MD.FARHAN ABIR •MD.SABBIR KARIM •MD.YASIN •MD.EZAZ AHMED •S.M.RAHAT RAHMAN •MD.ABU RAIHAN 10.01.03.003 10.01.03.008 10.01.03.018 10.01.03.020 10.01.03.026 10.01.03.037 10.01.03.038 10.01.03.041 10.01.03.044 10.01.03.049
  2. 2. Deep Foundation Foundation: Foundation is the lowest and supporting layer of a structure. Geotechnical engineers design foundations based on the load characteristics of the structure.
  3. 3. FOUNDATION SHALLOW FOUNDATION DEEP FOUNDATION The most common forms of construction pertaining to deep foundation are : PILES PIERS CAISSONS
  4. 4. Shallow Foundation
  5. 5. Deep Foundation
  6. 6. Classification of Piles Depending upon materials used in their manufacture, piles can be classified as : a) Concrete Piles i) Cast-In-Place or cast-in-situ Piles ii) Pre-cast Piles iii) Pre-stressed concrete Piles b) Steel Piles c) Timber Piles d) Composite Piles
  7. 7. PRECAST PILE
  8. 8. Definition & Explanation PRE-CAST PILE: Pre means before & cast means made. So precast pile refers to a pile that has made before it is being used.
  9. 9. PRECAST PILE
  10. 10. Why and Where it is used? • Pre cast pile is used for extra heavy weight structure because it can ensure full strength by proper maintaining. • It can be used under water. • There is no possibility of the reinforcements getting displaced. • There is no possibility of the voids being left. • Not to attack by corrosive constituents in the soil and the sub-soil water.
  11. 11. Structure of Precast pile & Related Information • By the soil test, we would be find the depth of penetrate. • By which length of a pile can be determined. • After determine the total weight of the building, we would find the number of piles. • The diameter of the pile normally varies from 35 cm to 65 cm and their length varies from 20 ft to 30 ft. • Besides bearing load for easy transportation & movement big weir or reinforcement is used in the pre cast pile. • For easy driven rectangular pile is often made.
  12. 12. • Longitudinal reinforcement usually consists of one bar 20 mm to 50mm in diameter at each angle of the section of the pile. • The vertical rods are tied horizontally by bars 6mm to 10mm in diameter. • The horizontal bars may be provided in the form of stirrups wound around the verticals. • Pile shoe & pile stirrup is used in the lower part of the pile to driven the pile easily.
  13. 13. CASING
  14. 14. SOIL CONDITION Soil suitability • Suitable in a wide range of soil conditions • Working loads in excess of 1000kN • Useful for very deep piling upto 40 m • In soft ground or in aggressive or contaminated soils Bearing Capacity • High bearing capacity • Concrete formations around the contracted sections increase the capacity. • Compact soil & increase the bearing capacity
  15. 15. Process of Precast pile • Steel form is used for the precast pile manufacture. • Before pore the concrete in to the form, Mobil or other kind of oil have been used. • cement, sand ,aggregate ratio is normally 1:2:4 in pre cast pile. • But to make the foundation stronger mix ratio is used 1:1.5:3 • When the concrete pore in the steel form it would be ramming by the vibrator.
  16. 16. Picture of Processing Precast pile
  17. 17. Curing & Driving •After 3 days, pile have been covering by the sheet. • After 3 days of casting, steel form would be removed. • Then the piles would be prepare for 4 weeks curing. •Then the piles are transported to the site for driving
  18. 18. Picture of Curing
  19. 19. Picture of Driving
  20. 20. Advantages of Precast Pile • • • • • • • • Cast well before work. Well supervised Reinforcement remain in their proper position Can be driven under water After driven they can be loaded soon We can get required strength Detect the damage before use Properly cured by water
  21. 21. Disadvantages of Precast Pile • • • • • • Difficult to manufacture Not economical Subject to longitudinal and transverse cracking Not aesthetic Not appropriate for curved or flared structures Complicated for skews
  22. 22. Reinforcement of the Site • • • • • • • • Main rod 22 mm diameter Stirrup 10 mm diameter 60 grade Spacing on stirrup 4”~6”~4” Some extra16 mm rod was provide in both two end due to pressure extra rod length is 3.5’ Clear cover 2’’ for subsurface Stirrup hook bend at 135 degree & bending portion is 3’’ long Steel shuttering Triangle pile shoe was set in the bottom of the pile
  23. 23. Difference of Theoretical & Practical Theoretical • We can joint two pile together Practical • We use one pile to drive. • Maximum length 40 ft • They use 50~55 ft pile • All of the test have to • They only do some test done before use in site
  24. 24. Cast In Situ Pile
  25. 25. WHAT IS CAST-IN-SITU PILES? •Cast in situ piles are those piles which are cast in position in side the ground. •Reinforcements are necessary to be provided in a cast in situ Piles , when the pile acts as a column and is subjected to a lateral force.
  26. 26. WHAT IS CAST-IN-SITU PILES?
  27. 27. PURPOSE OF CAST-IN-SITU PILE • Load Transmission • Load Resistance
  28. 28. TYPES OF CAST IN SITU PILES SIMPLEX PILE FRANKI PILE
  29. 29. TYPES OF CAST IN SITU PILES VIBRO PILE VIBRO EXPANDED PILE
  30. 30. TYPES OF CAST IN SITU PILES RAYMOND PILE MAC ARTHUR PILE
  31. 31. CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE OF CAST IN SITU PILE LOOSANING OF SOIL I. Cutting and Scraping Boring Grab Cutting Teeth For Rotary Drilling ii. Ripping iii. Percussion
  32. 32. REMOVAL OF SOIL Intermittent Transport • Rope Grab • Rotary Drill CONTINUOUS TRANSPORT • Flush Drilling • Continuous Auger
  33. 33. TEMPORARY SUPPORT Drill Casing • Vibrating • Oscillating • Rotating DRILLING MUD • Water • Bentonite • Polymer
  34. 34. ENLARGED BASE • Under reaming • Grouting • Plug Expulsion CASTING Of Pile Reinforcement Concrete Mix Casting of Concrete
  35. 35. BORING PROCESS Choice of place and boring machine
  36. 36. FIELD TANK AND REMOVAL OF OVERFLOWING WATER
  37. 37. THE PROCESS OF CASTING Insertion of temporary casing with shoe
  38. 38. THE PROCESS OF CASTING Placement of reinforcement
  39. 39. THE PROCESS OF CASTING CASTING OF CONCRETE
  40. 40. THE PROCESS OF CASTING CASTING OF CONCRETE
  41. 41. THE PROCESS OF CASTING Removal of temporary tube and finish of casting
  42. 42. COMPARISON BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICAL FIELD Theoretically • Pouring of Concrete and Withdrawing of steel tube gradually • Polymer, Bentonite, or Steel Case is used • Auger or rotary drill is used Practical Field • Steel tube is withdrawn after 28 days • Only Bentonite solution is used • Only Rotary drill is used
  43. 43. DIFFICULTIES OF PILEING AND HOW TO OVERCOME THIS PROBLEM • Rocky layer of soil with stone • Rising water from the bottom of hole • Corrosion can be occurred SOLUTION • Abort drilling • Pump the water. Best, use precast pile • Soil test is needed. Corrosion resistant cement
  44. 44. ADVANTAGES OF CAST-IN-SITU PILES • • • • • • • Cannot be used under water Displacement of reinforced Dumping of concrete from a great height Inspection is not possible; voids may be left Contact of water of concrete to the dry soil if uncased Freshly laid concrete is susceptible to soil components Driving of adjacent piles may rupture shell-less cast-insitu pile
  45. 45. DISADVANTAGES OF CAST-IN-SITU PILES • • • • • • • Cannot be used under water Displacement of reinforced Dumping of concrete from a great height Inspection is not possible; voids may be left Contact of water of concrete to the dry soil if uncased Freshly laid concrete is susceptible to soil components Driving of adjacent piles may rupture shell-less cast-insitu pile

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