Reading and Writing 101Vowel and Consonant Phonemes
Learning Objectives To learn the nature of phonemes in words To use phonemic awareness to help us spell and speak better.
Introduction Do you face any of the following challenges when you read and spell:1) Slow down when you face bigger words2) Say out a big word when you spell3) Confused between letter sounds, such as en or on , ir or er, tion or sion, when you spell If you do, thats because your knowledge of letter sounds is yet incomplete! You can easily read and spell when you are familiar with letter sounds.
Phonemic Awareness Therefore, to read and spell effectively, you must be familiar with letter sounds. Letter sounds are called Phonemes. A Phoneme is the smallest sound unit in a word. For example, all these words have 3 sounds each:1) cat - /c/ /a/ /t/2) pin - /p/ /i/ /n/3) ton - /t/ /o/ /n/● Phonemes are represented by backward slashes.
Phonemes In English, there is a total of 44 phonemes from 26 alphabets – 5 vowels and 21 consonants. 5 vowels – 20 phonemes 21 consonants – 24 phonemes These 44 phonemes represent 95% of all English words as they are spoken. For example, for the letter a, these are different phonemes: /a/ nt ban /a/ na sw /a/ n b /a/ by zebr /a/ b /a/ ll
Applying Phonemic AwarenessWhen you have a strong sense of Phonemic Awareness, you are break up a word into its phonemes:1) Break – /br/ /ea/ /k/2) Class – /cl/ /a/ /ss/3) Teacher – /t/ /ea/ /ch/ /er/4) Sleep - /sl/ /ee/ /p/Q: You have learnt about Digraphs, Trigraphs and Blends. Can you spot them above?
Phonemes – Voiced & Unvoiced Some Phonemes are Voiced and some, Unvoiced. Place your index and middle finger on your throat and try these phonemes:1)Voiced Phonemes- when your vocal cords vibrate. P, V, Z, /th/umb2) Unvoiced Phonemes- when your vocal cords dont vibrate. B, F, S, Fea/th/er● Q: Vowel Phonemes are all voiced. Can you try sounding /a/, /e/ , /i/, /o/ & /u/ ?
Learning Activity What are the phonemes in these words?1) Capture2) Fashion3) Horrify4) Garden5) Suddenly● Hint: Use your knowledge of digraphs and trigraphs to help you.
Learning Activity Answers What are the phonemes in these words?1) Capture - /c/ , /a/ , /p/ , /t/ , /ure/2) Fashion - /f/ , /a/ , /sh/ , /i/ , /o/ , /n/3) Horrify - /h/ , /o/ , /rr/ , /i/ , /f/ , /y/4) Garden - /g/ , /ar/ , /d/ , /e/ , /n/5) Suddenly - /s/ , /u/ , /dd/ , /e/ , /n/ , /l/ , /y/● The digraphs are: /sh/ , /rr/ , /ar/ and /dd/. The trigraph is /ure/.
Discussion What are phonemes? Why is it important to have strong phonemic awareness? How do we apply this knowledge?
Discussion Phonemes are letter sounds. Phonemic awareness can help us to sound the phonemes in words so we can spell and read better. We break up a word into its phonemes.