Human reproductive system


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Biologi Umum semester 1 pendidikan Biologi
Sistem Reproduksi

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Human reproductive system

  1. 1. Male Reproductive System
  2. 2. Reproductive Anatomy of the Human Male. • External: - penis - scrotum • Internal: - gonads - accessory sex glands and ducts. Human reproduction involves intricate anatomy and complex behavior
  3. 3. Male Reproductive System
  4. 4. Testis
  5. 5. Male Reproductive System
  6. 6. External structure of the penis: • glans penis • prepuce (foreskin)
  7. 7. Testis are the male gonads. • seminiferous tubules- form sperm • Leydig cells (interstitial cells)- produce androgens (ex. Testosterone, ABP).
  8. 8. Testes are located in the scrotum, outside the body cavity. • This keeps testicular temperature cooler than the body cavity. • The testes develop in the body cavity and descend into the scrotum just before birth.
  9. 9. •Sperm Pathway Prostatic urethra Membranous urethra
  10. 10. Semen • Seminal fluid is thick, yellowish, and alkaline. • It contains mucus, fructose, a coagulating enzyme, ascorbic acid, and prostaglandins. • Accessory glands: 1.seminal vesicle 2.prostate gland 3.bulbourethral gland
  11. 11. Seminal Vesicle Seminal vesicle: • A pair of glands that secrete a liquid component of semen into the vas deferens. • Secretion is alkaline • Contains fructose, asorbic acid, coagulating enzyme, prostaglandin
  12. 12. Prostate gland: • Location- surrounds and opens into the urethra where it leaves the bladder. • Secretion- slightly alkaline fluid that activates the sperm and prevents them from sticking together • Prostate problems are common in males over 40. • Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Prostate
  13. 13. Bulbourethral gland (Cowper’s gland): • Location- paired glands that lie beneath the prostate • Secretion- a thick, clear alkaline mucous that drains into the membranous urethra. • Function- It acts to wash residual urine out of the urethra when ejaculating semen-- raises pH; neutralizes acidity of urine. Bulbourethral gland
  14. 14. Spermatogenesis
  15. 15. Mature Spermatozoa tail mitochondria nucleus acrosome head
  16. 16. spermatogonium 1º spermatocyte 2º spermatocyte spermatids Sertoli cell spermatozoa Seminiferous Tubules Seminiferous Tubules
  17. 17. Sperm Maturation & Development
  18. 18. Hormones Involved in Spermatogenesis • Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) • Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH=LH) • Testosterone • Inhibin • ABP
  19. 19. Feedback Inhibition InhibinInhibin Acts on anterior pituitaryActs on anterior pituitary Inhibits FSH productionInhibits FSH production TestosteroneTestosterone Acts on hypothalamusActs on hypothalamus Inhibits GnRH productionInhibits GnRH production Hormonal Control of Spermatogenesis
  20. 20. Some Other Effects of Testosterone muscle and bone growthmuscle and bone growth facial and pubic hair growthfacial and pubic hair growth thickening of vocal cordsthickening of vocal cords growth of pharyngeal cartilagegrowth of pharyngeal cartilage hair follicle effectshair follicle effects stimulates sebaceous glandsstimulates sebaceous glands Increased BMRIncreased BMR
  21. 21. Vasectomy
  22. 22. FemaleFemale Reproductive SystemReproductive System
  23. 23. cervix vagina fimbriae uterine tube ovary uterus bladder urethra clitoris l. minora l. majora Female Reproductive System
  24. 24. Internal reproductive: • Vagina • Cervix • Fallopian tube (uterian tube/oviducts) • Fimbrae • Ovary • Uterus - Endometrium - Myometrium - Perimetrium cervix vagina fimbriae uterine tube ovary uterus endometrium myometrium perimetrium
  25. 25. Fimbrae & Fallopian Tube
  26. 26. Oogenesis in the Ovary
  27. 27. Oogenesis Ovary- contains 400,000 oocytes; release about 500 in a lifetime • Ovary- under influence of FSH. The follicles mature every 28 days • Primary follicle produces estrogens • And primary oocyte completes its 1st division produces 2ndary oocyte and polar body
  28. 28. Oogenesis • Aprox 1/2 way through the 28 day cycle the follicle reaches the mature Vesticular or Graffian follicle stage.
  29. 29. Oogenesis • Estrogen levels rise and release LH and FSH and triggers ovulation.
  30. 30. Oogenesis • The 2ndary oocyte travels down the uterine tube to the uterus. • If fertilized by sperm, it will produce a zygote Ovum in uterine tube
  31. 31. Ectopic Pregnancy
  32. 32. Oogenesis
  33. 33. Hormones Involved in the Female Reproductive Cycle Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Luteinizing Hormone (LH)Luteinizing Hormone (LH) EstrogenEstrogen ProgesteroneProgesterone InhibinInhibin RelaxinRelaxin
  34. 34. The Uterine Cycle
  35. 35. Hormone Fluctuation
  36. 36. Some Other Effects ofSome Other Effects of EstrogenEstrogen • breast development • external genitalia growth • bone growth • fat deposition • Increase protein anabolism • Decrease blood cholesterol • Facilitate calcium uptake • Promotes hydration of skin • Feminizes brain
  37. 37. Menopause: cessation of ovarian and menstrual cycles. • Usually occurs between ages 46 and 54. • Due to ovaries decreased responsiveness to gonadotropins. Menopause affects: • changes in sexual desire • triggers mood swings • causes debilitating hot flashes • may lead to bone and heart problems • short-term memory loss • insomnia