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French revolution ppp


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French revolution ppp

  1. 1. The French Revolution 1789 – 1795
  2. 2. Versailles
  3. 3. Allegory of Truth Female revolutionary figures stood for all kinds of qualities and virtues, in this case, "Truth." Women figures appeared so prominently in paintings and engravings because French nouns for the qualities and virtues were usually feminine (Truth = La Vérité). In other words, paintings such as this one did not represent real women; they used allegorical figures to make a more abstract point.
  4. 4. Reason To contemporaries who subscribed to the Enlightenment, the term "reason" was to be contrasted to superstition.
  5. 5. Liberty Even before the Revolution, the French had used a woman to symbolize ‘liberty’. By July 1789 this symbol had become quite common and would only grow more familiar over the revolutionary decade. Belonging to no group and no particular place, she stood for a universal principle based on reason.
  6. 6. Equality At the beginning of the Revolution, the term ‘equality’ meant an end to the legal differences that had characterized the Old Regime. For example, all individuals would be subject to the same regimen of taxation. Over the course of the decade, however, the Revolution radicalized, and ‘equality’ expanded to encompass an end to many other sorts of differences, particularly economic ones. Although equality is here represented as a woman, the revolutionaries were capable of using males, particularly Hercules. But this powerful symbol frightened many, especially from the educated elite, and the female "Equality" seemed far less terrifying.
  7. 7. Fraternity Using a woman to represent "Fraternity" seems ironic at best, although theoretically the term might mean the community of humanity. In actuality, when the revolutionaries considered "community," they certainly thought of men far more than women. The period saw women take advantage of opportunities presented to them, but outright champions of this kind of inclusive community were few. What might the revolutionaries have meant, then, by their reliance on the female form? One might hypothesize that in a revolution that feared the bold action of crowds, construing fraternity in this fashion softened and lessened such concerns
  8. 8. Further discussion: In the early liberal stage of the revolution, fraternity was vastly overshadowed by equality & liberty (these ideas were the main concerns of the Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen & the August Decrees). The women demonstrated some sense of fraternity in their March to Versailles, but again, their concerns lay with the price of bread and other ideals. The first show of fraternity came with the Festival of Federation, which celebrated the success & unity of the Fall of the Bastille. Lafayette used this festival to elevate his own role as the moderator of the crowd & the hero of the people, wishing to equate his position with that of Louis. The Girondins encouraged the notion of fraternity in the declaration of the 'motherland in danger' during war with Austria, creating an opening in the National Guard for sans-culottes. They did this to rally political support for themselves, as well as military support for the army.
  9. 9. Fraternity as an idea only gained greater significance in the latter part of the revolution, particularly during the Terror, when the notions of personal liberty & equality were sacrificed in the name of collective liberty & equality. Leaders like Robespierre used this principle as justification for their measures including the Law of Suspects, use of revolutionary tribunals, and watch committees to crush rebellion. This also justified their use of representatives-en-mission and grain requisitioning on peasants as a means of protecting the whole nation. Ironically, the new order espoused the ideal of fraternity, yet was coloured by the bloody results of people spying on & 'telling on' each other eg. September Massacres, show trials. Finally, Robespierre tried to promote the notion of fraternity with the Festival of the Supreme Being, which tried to unite France after the Civil Constitution of the Clergy - however, this contributed to his downfall.
  10. 10. Republican Calendar This poster includes the Republic’s new calendar under an image of Marianne, another symbol of the Republic as well as the ultimate expression of revolutionary liberation from the past. Without her pike & calmly reading a book with a cupid around, she is more the mother of the new system than a warrior for liberty, as in other prints.
  11. 11. "An Ordinary Guillotine" The guillotine was first introduced as a humane, efficient, and above all modern form of execution in April 1792. During the radical phase of the Republic, it would become the symbol of the Terror. This engraving suggests the guillotine is providing "good support for liberty."
  12. 12. The Ancien Regime
  13. 13. Louis XVI represented the "body politic" of the old regime. Theoretically, France existed only as an entity in the body of the King. The citizens were his subjects; the geographical parts linked together only through the monarch.
  14. 14. Louis giving money to poor
  15. 15. Madame Elizabeth, sister of Louis XVI
  16. 16. Marie Antoinette
  17. 17. Aged 14 years
  18. 18. Marie Therese
  19. 19. Oppression of the Third Estate
  20. 20. Such a perspective on the period before 1789 purposely exaggerates social divisions. It would have found few proponents before the Revolution, but the image does reveal the social clash felt so intensely by the revolutionaries.
  21. 21. 22 February 1787
  22. 22. ‘Fusillade in the Faubourg St. Antoine, 28 April 1789" This image chronicles a riot. Many believe it was caused by artisans who attacked the Reveillon wallpaper shop and factory because they believed that the owner was about to lower wages. Over two days, more than 6,000 attacked the place. On 28 April troops were called and fired on the crowd. The official report noted 71 killed, wounded, or detained. 28 April 1789
  23. 23. These three figures are wearing costumes prescribed for deputies to the Estates-General…
  24. 24. "Departure of the Three Orders for Versailles" In this image, representatives of each of the three orders depart together in a cart for the 1789 meeting of the Estates–General at Versailles, where they will advise the King on behalf of the nation.
  25. 25. 5 May 1789 – opening plenary session of the Estates General
  26. 26. 20 June 1789
  27. 27. 20 June 1789
  28. 28. 20 June 1789 2.
  29. 29. In July, out-of-work peasants who crowded the slums at the edge of Paris rioted and looted… Below, an unruly mob sets fire to one of the hated customs barriers at which taxes were levied on goods entering the city.
  30. 30. ‘The Third Incident of 14 July 1789’ This engraving from the Berthault series depicts Stanislas Maillard bravely climbing on a plank over the dry moat surrounding the fortress to accept from one of the soldiers Launay’s "capitulation" of the Bastille.
  31. 31. Taking of the 14 July 1789 Bastille This print emphasizes the populace’s participation in the storming of the Bastille, showing the urban population fighting under a red banner with muskets, swords, and pikes against the royal soldiers. Stunning images and dramatic press reports— contributed to what has become the widespread view that the taking of the Bastille was a spontaneous, and widely popular revolt against royal authority.
  32. 32. At the Palais Royal, one of the many orators roused the crowd on July 12, 1789, addressing citizens carrying wax busts of Necker and the Duke of Orleans.
  33. 33. "Speech in the Garden of the Palais Royal" This idealized portrait shows the revolutionary Camille Desmoulins exhorting a crowd of people to go to the streets and defend the Revolution
  34. 34. Lafayette appears on his famous white charger in a print celebrating his appointment as commander of the Paris National Guards.
  35. 35. "National Assembly Relinquishes All Its Privileges " In late July 1789, as reports poured into Paris from the countryside of several thousand separate yet related peasant mobilizations, a majority of them against seigneurial property, the deputies of the National Assembly debated reforming not just the fiscal system or the constitution but the very basis of French society. In a dramatic all–night session on 4–5 August deputies stepped forward, one after another, to renounce for the good of the "nation" the particular privileges enjoyed by their town or region. By the morning, noble, clerical, and commoner deputies had proposed, debated, and approved even more systematic reform, voting to "abolish the feudal system entirely," effectively eliminating noble and clerical privilege, the fundamental principle of French society since the Middle Ages. As dramatic a gesture as this was, it was also very abstract—after all, the "feudal system" had virtually ceased to exist in France for several hundred years; thus, working out the details of this decree became a primary objective of the National Assembly for the next two years.
  36. 36. Light blue areas indicate the main theatre of the revolutionary wars; darker blue indicates areas in which counter- revolutionary forces arose. The areas in grey are territories occupied by France during the Revolution. The dotted line from Paris shows the escape route of the King.
  37. 37. Awakening of the Third Estate - With the Bastille being destroyed in the background, a member of the Third Estate breaks his shackles. Here, the clergy and nobility recoil in fear, thereby emphasizing the conflict between the estates.
  38. 38. Farewell Bastille This hand–colored engraving equates the taking of the Bastille with the rise of the Third Estate against the clergy and nobility. A commoner in a black hat sporting a tricolor cockade plays the bagpipe triumphantly over the fallen lion of the absolutist monarchy. To the side, a revolutionary soldier raises his sword to menace a priest.
  39. 39. 4th August 1789
  40. 40. 27 August 1789
  41. 41. 5-6 October 1789
  42. 42. Oath of the New Horaces - Social discrimination against old regime elites continued in this parody of a famous painting prior to the Revolution, The Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques–Louis David which focused on the courage of three brothers who thrust their arms bravely forward to signal their willingness to sacrifice themselves for their country. In this image, three officers recruited from the nobility offer a weak salute, suggesting their irresolute allegiance to the king and a lack of leadership ability.
  43. 43. 2 November 1789 They Had Them Too Long – This image demonstrates the necessity of nationalizing church property. It shows a peasant cutting the fingers off a priest’s hands; a nobleman cannot bear to watch, but has no qualms about putting on the gloves the clergyman will no longer need. Although the focus is on the clergy, the noble’s greed is clearly in evidence
  44. 44. 12 July 1790
  45. 45. 14 July 1790
  46. 46. 14 July 1790
  47. 47. Active Citizen Passive Citizen
  48. 48. This piece of crockery demonstrates the sentiments of social unity so prevalent at the Festival of Federation. The crossed sword, pike, clerical staff, and bonnet symbolize the union of the nobility, peasants, clergy, and workers, respectively.
  49. 49. 1791
  50. 50. 20 June 1792
  51. 51. In this English cartoon, entitled ‘French democrats surprising the royal runaways’, a startled king and queen. Still disguised, are confronted by a howling mob of citizens of Varennes. As a joke, the artist gave Louis’ profile to Marie.
  52. 52. 14 September 1791
  53. 53. 20 June 1792
  54. 54. 20 June 1792
  55. 55. 10 August 1792
  56. 56. 4 Sept. 1792
  57. 57. Jan 1793
  58. 58. 21 January 1793
  59. 59. Wallpaper:
  60. 60. 1792 A British & French Comparison
  61. 61. Citizen Guillotine
  62. 62. Towns & villages planted ‘ Liberty Trees’ hung with cockades and topped by revolutionary caps to demonstrate republican zeal. Above, a group of sans-culottes dance around a tree set up near the Bastille and rout an Austrian army with their patriotic ardour.
  63. 63. Republican Belle
  64. 64. Raping Sans- Culotte
  65. 65. The Amazon Infantry
  66. 66. Game of the Great Men, Minot the Elder Revolutionaries redesigned playing cards in order to eliminate references to royalty (kings, queens, jacks) and replace them with great men and abstract virtues
  67. 67. May-June 1793
  68. 68. 13 July 1793
  69. 69. 16 October 1793
  70. 70. National Guard
  71. 71. 8 June 1794
  72. 72. 28 July 1794
  73. 73. 6-7 December 1794
  74. 74. Festival of Liberty
  75. 75. 1798
  76. 76. 1799
  77. 77. 1804
  78. 78. Liberty!