FOSSILS TYPES DEFINITION INDEX FOSSILS REFRESHER LOADING FORMATION INTRODUCTION
<ul><li>Earth’s formation was thought to have started as a huge barren ball of ice and rock. It was devoid of atmosphere a...
The same forces acting on the earth  today are the same forces that shaped  the earth throughout its history. Principle of...
FOSSILS Defined as the remains or traces  of organisms that have been  preserved in the earth's crust.
Formation of Fossils Principle of superposition Principle of cross-cutting relationship Principle of faunal succession
<ul><li>According to this principle, if rock layers  have not been overturned, the oldest  layer is always at the bottom a...
This principle explains that the rock that appears to cut acroos another is young rock
Fossils at the bottom layer are the oldest and at the top are  the youngest.
Some fossils are used to establish  the age of the rock that contain  them which is known as index fossils
Types of Fossils Body  Fossils Trace Fossils Unaltered  remains Altered remains
Unaltered remains Encrustations Original Skeletal Material Tar Impregnation Amber Entombment Refrigeration Mummification
<ul><li>In many caves, groundwater seeps  </li></ul><ul><li>and drips constantly; The high the  </li></ul><ul><li>concentr...
Organisms which have hard parts are preserved as the  original material. This includes many invertebrate shells  composed ...
<ul><li>Tar pits are excellent  </li></ul><ul><li>sites for fossilization,  </li></ul><ul><li>vertebrate bones.  </li></ul...
<ul><li>Certain cone-bearing trees, such as  </li></ul><ul><li>spruce, pine, and fir, contain a sticky  </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>During the Pleistocene glaciation, when  </li></ul><ul><li>ice sheets covered much of the Northern </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>In very arid regions, animals may dry out  </li></ul><ul><li>quickly and be preserved, soft parts and all. </li></...
Altered Remains Lithification Carbonization Dissolution/ Replacement A process by which  unconsolidated  materials  are  t...
Trace Fossils Mold Cast Gastroliths Coprolites Gnawings Borings and Burrows
<ul><li>Any reproduction of the anatomical features </li></ul><ul><li>of the internal or external surface of an  </li></ul...
<ul><li>This is in general, a duplication of the  </li></ul><ul><li>original. Casts are formed when original </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>These are smooth, polished stones that are  </li></ul><ul><li>often found in the abdominal cavities of the  </li><...
<ul><li>Fossil excrement can sometimes  </li></ul><ul><li>give definitive knowledge about the  </li></ul><ul><li>diet of t...
<ul><li>Rodents and other animals chew on  </li></ul><ul><li>bones for the calcium content and </li></ul><ul><li>did so in...
<ul><li>Certain worms and clams and many other </li></ul><ul><li>invertebrates burrow into rocks, wood, shells, </li></ul>...
Modified   True  or  False . <ul><li>The same forces acting on earth today are the same forces that shaped the earth throu...
<ul><li>Index fossils are used to establish the age of the rock that contain them. </li></ul><ul><li>Altered remains inclu...
<ul><li>BLOCKBLUSTERS </li></ul><ul><li>What  OSM  includes many invertebrate shells? </li></ul><ul><li>What  IF  is used ...
<ul><li>What  C  is a duplication of the original? </li></ul><ul><li>What  PCR  explains that the rock appears to cut acro...
<ul><li>Write  UR  for unaltered remains,  T  for trace fossils and  AR  for altered remains in classifying the ff. terms....
Prepared By: Elimae Mariz  Dalangin
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FOSSILS`

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FOSSILS`

  1. 1. FOSSILS TYPES DEFINITION INDEX FOSSILS REFRESHER LOADING FORMATION INTRODUCTION
  2. 2. <ul><li>Earth’s formation was thought to have started as a huge barren ball of ice and rock. It was devoid of atmosphere and oceans. Deep within the earth, however, radioactive elements gradually unleashed their power and, together with gravity, melted the rock which did not cool for the next hundred million years. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The same forces acting on the earth today are the same forces that shaped the earth throughout its history. Principle of uniform processes
  4. 4. FOSSILS Defined as the remains or traces of organisms that have been preserved in the earth's crust.
  5. 5. Formation of Fossils Principle of superposition Principle of cross-cutting relationship Principle of faunal succession
  6. 6. <ul><li>According to this principle, if rock layers have not been overturned, the oldest layer is always at the bottom and the youngest on top. </li></ul>
  7. 7. This principle explains that the rock that appears to cut acroos another is young rock
  8. 8. Fossils at the bottom layer are the oldest and at the top are the youngest.
  9. 9. Some fossils are used to establish the age of the rock that contain them which is known as index fossils
  10. 10. Types of Fossils Body Fossils Trace Fossils Unaltered remains Altered remains
  11. 11. Unaltered remains Encrustations Original Skeletal Material Tar Impregnation Amber Entombment Refrigeration Mummification
  12. 12. <ul><li>In many caves, groundwater seeps </li></ul><ul><li>and drips constantly; The high the </li></ul><ul><li>concentration of dissolved minerals </li></ul><ul><li>in such water is left behind when the </li></ul><ul><li>water drips and forms a thin crust on </li></ul><ul><li>the interior surface of the cave and </li></ul><ul><li>whatever lies In it. This will coat and </li></ul><ul><li>preserve any organism which dies </li></ul><ul><li>here. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Organisms which have hard parts are preserved as the original material. This includes many invertebrate shells composed of calcium phosphate.
  14. 14. <ul><li>Tar pits are excellent </li></ul><ul><li>sites for fossilization, </li></ul><ul><li>vertebrate bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller pits have </li></ul><ul><li>yielded perfectly </li></ul><ul><li>preserved insects </li></ul><ul><li>and even insect </li></ul><ul><li>larvae. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Certain cone-bearing trees, such as </li></ul><ul><li>spruce, pine, and fir, contain a sticky </li></ul><ul><li>resinous sap which comes from wounds </li></ul><ul><li>in the tree. Small insects and other </li></ul><ul><li>minute organisms may become trapped </li></ul><ul><li>in the resin, which, after burial may </li></ul><ul><li>harden into amber. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>During the Pleistocene glaciation, when </li></ul><ul><li>ice sheets covered much of the Northern </li></ul><ul><li>Hemisphere, some animals like mammoths, </li></ul><ul><li>Were trapped in permanently frozen soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these animals have been </li></ul><ul><li>discovered perfectly preserved. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>In very arid regions, animals may dry out </li></ul><ul><li>quickly and be preserved, soft parts and all. </li></ul><ul><li>Ifugaos practice mummification with the </li></ul><ul><li>death of their leader or loved ones. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Altered Remains Lithification Carbonization Dissolution/ Replacement A process by which unconsolidated materials are transformed to solid rock by compaction. the process of dissolving a solid substance into a solvent to yield a solution When organisms become mashed into the sediment, their volatile components may be forced out, leaving only a film of carbon.
  19. 19. Trace Fossils Mold Cast Gastroliths Coprolites Gnawings Borings and Burrows
  20. 20. <ul><li>Any reproduction of the anatomical features </li></ul><ul><li>of the internal or external surface of an </li></ul><ul><li>organism, animal tracks, or footprints </li></ul><ul><li>preserved in rocks may be termed </li></ul><ul><li>external molds. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>This is in general, a duplication of the </li></ul><ul><li>original. Casts are formed when original </li></ul><ul><li>parts are dissolved away and the </li></ul><ul><li>resulting space filled either with </li></ul><ul><li>sediment or mineral matter. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>These are smooth, polished stones that are </li></ul><ul><li>often found in the abdominal cavities of the </li></ul><ul><li>skeletons of dinosaurs. They are thought to </li></ul><ul><li>have helped those huge animals grind up </li></ul><ul><li>vegetable matter in their stomachs. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Fossil excrement can sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>give definitive knowledge about the </li></ul><ul><li>diet of the animal concerned. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Rodents and other animals chew on </li></ul><ul><li>bones for the calcium content and </li></ul><ul><li>did so in the past. Gnawed bones </li></ul><ul><li>are frequently preserved as fossils. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Certain worms and clams and many other </li></ul><ul><li>invertebrates burrow into rocks, wood, shells, </li></ul><ul><li>and all types of sediment. These burrows </li></ul><ul><li>are frequently preserved, especially in </li></ul><ul><li>fine-grained rocks. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Modified True or False . <ul><li>The same forces acting on earth today are the same forces that shaped the earth throughout the history is known as principle of cross-cutting relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Remains or traces of organisms that are not preserved in the earth’s crust is known as fossils. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Index fossils are used to establish the age of the rock that contain them. </li></ul><ul><li>Altered remains includes fossils which have undergone little or no change in structure and composition. </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement belongs to altered </li></ul><ul><li>remains. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>BLOCKBLUSTERS </li></ul><ul><li>What OSM includes many invertebrate shells? </li></ul><ul><li>What IF is used to establish the age of rock? </li></ul><ul><li>What C explains that the sediment, the volatile components of an organism may be forced out, leaving only a film of carbon? </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>What C is a duplication of the original? </li></ul><ul><li>What PCR explains that the rock appears to cut across another is the younger rock? </li></ul><ul><li>What G are smooth and polished stones? </li></ul><ul><li>What C is a way to transform solid rocks? </li></ul><ul><li>What M is any reproduction preserved in rocks? </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Write UR for unaltered remains, T for trace fossils and AR for altered remains in classifying the ff. terms. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Gastroliths 7. Carbonization </li></ul><ul><li>2. Dissolution 8. Gnawings </li></ul><ul><li>3. Coprolites 9. Mummification </li></ul><ul><li>4. Lithification 10. Cast </li></ul><ul><li>5. Encrustations 11. Refrigeration </li></ul><ul><li>6. Mold 12. Tar Impregnation </li></ul>
  31. 31. Prepared By: Elimae Mariz Dalangin

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