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# Locality-sensitive hashing for search in metric space

M.Sc. thesis presentation about two methods developed for indexing in metric space for large-scale similarity search

M.Sc. thesis presentation about two methods developed for indexing in metric space for large-scale similarity search

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### Locality-sensitive hashing for search in metric space

1. 1. LSH for similarity search in generic metric space Eliezer de Souza da Silva Department of Computer Engineering and Industrial Automation School of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Campinas eliezers@dca.fee.unicamp.br Wednesday 8th October, 2014
2. 2. Basic Concepts and Research Review Similarity Search – metric space model Generic model for proximity search; Tuple (U, d), where U is a set and d a distance function (positive, symmetric); ∀x, y, z ∈ U, d(x, y) ≤ d(x, z) + d(z, y) (triangle inequality); E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 2 / 44
3. 3. Basic Concepts and Research Review Locality sensitive hashing Locality-sensitive hashing Deﬁnition Given a distance function d : X × X → R+, a function family H = {h : X → C} is (r, cr, p1, p2)-sensitive for a given data set S ⊆ X if, for any points p, q ∈ S, h ∈ H: If d(p, q) ≤ r then PrH[h(q) = h(p)] ≥ p1 (probability of colliding within the ball of radius r), If d(p, q) > cr then PrH[h(q) = h(p)] ≤ p2 (probability of colliding outside the ball of radius cr) c > 1 and p1 > p2 E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 3 / 44
4. 4. Basic Concepts and Research Review Locality sensitive hashing Locality-sensitive hashing q r cr p p' Figure: LSH and (R, c)-NNE.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 4 / 44
5. 5. Basic Concepts and Research Review Locality sensitive hashing Quantizers Data-dependent quantization has the advantage of more regular population of points in each bucket and empirically performs better than regular schemes [50] E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 5 / 44
6. 6. Basic Concepts and Research Review Locality sensitive hashing Existing LSH in General Metric Spaces Novak et al. [41; 42]: M-Index: constructs a hierarchy of partitioning of the dataset choosing points from the dataset as cluster centers. Kang and Jung [28]: DFLSH (Distribution Free Locality-Sensitive Hashing): randomly choose t points from the original dataset (with n > t points) as centroids and index the dataset using the nearest centroid as hash key – this construction yields an approximately uniform number of points-per-bucket: O(n/t). Tellez and Chavez [59]: map metric data to a permutation index, encode permutation in hamming space and use Hamming LSH. E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 6 / 44
7. 7. Towards LSH in generic metric space VoronoiLSH VoronoiLSH - Hashing function Generate L induced Voronoi Partitioning L hash tables h1 hL...[ ] L associated hash functions ➡ ➡...{ { Deﬁnition Given a metric space (U, d), C = {c1, . . . , ck } ⊂ U and x ∈ U: hC : U → N hC(x) = argmini=1,...,k {d(x, ci)} (1) E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 7 / 44
8. 8. Towards LSH in generic metric space VoronoiLSH VoronoiLSH C1 C2 C3 q r cr Zq p Zp d(q,p) h(q)=h(p)=2 p' h(p')=3 Zp' E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 8 / 44
9. 9. Towards LSH in generic metric space VoronoiLSH Performance and Cost Models Range Cost RC(n, k) = n k + k ⇒ RC(n) = 2 √ n NN Cost NNC(n, k, d) = n k log( n k ) + d n k + dk ⇒ NNCopt (n, d) = O( nd(log( √ n) + d + 1) E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 9 / 44
10. 10. Towards LSH in generic metric space VoronoiLSH Hash probabilities bounds Probability model: (Ω, F, Pr) Zp = d(p, NNC(p)) = d(p, C) Ω = {Zx |x ∈ X, C ⊂ X} Pr[hC(p) = hC(q)] = Pr[{Zq < d(q, NNC(p)} ∩ {Zp < d(p, NNC(q)}] p q NNC(p) NNC(q) E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 10 / 44
11. 11. Towards LSH in generic metric space VoronoiLSH Hash probabilities bounds d(p, q) > cr {Zp + Zq < cr} ⊆ {Zp + Zq < d(p, q)} {Zp + Zq < d(p, q)} ⊆ {Zq < d(q, NNC(p)} ∩ {Zp < d(p, NNC(q)} E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 11 / 44
12. 12. Towards LSH in generic metric space VoronoiLSH Hash probabilities bounds d(p, q) > cr {Zp + Zq < cr} ⊆ {Zp + Zq < d(p, q)} {Zp + Zq < d(p, q)} ⊆ {Zq < d(q, NNC(p)} ∩ {Zp < d(p, NNC(q)} ⇒ Pr[hC(p) = hC(q)] ≥ Pr[Zq + Zp < cr] ⇒ Pr[hC(p) = hC(q)] ≤ Pr[Zq + Zp ≥ cr] = p2 E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 11 / 44
13. 13. Towards LSH in generic metric space VoronoiLSH Hash probabilities bounds d(p, q) < r d(p, NNC(q)) ≤ d(p, q) + Zq ≤ r + Zq d(q, NNC(p)) ≤ d(p, q) + Zp ≤ r + Zp E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 12 / 44
14. 14. Towards LSH in generic metric space VoronoiLSH Hash probabilities bounds d(p, q) < r d(p, NNC(q)) ≤ d(p, q) + Zq ≤ r + Zq d(q, NNC(p)) ≤ d(p, q) + Zp ≤ r + Zp ⇒ {Zp < d(p, NNC(q)} ⊆ {Zp < r + Zq} ⇒ {Zq < d(q, NNC(p)} ⊆ {Zq < r + Zp} E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 12 / 44
15. 15. Towards LSH in generic metric space VoronoiLSH Hash probabilities bounds d(p, q) < r d(p, NNC(q)) ≤ d(p, q) + Zq ≤ r + Zq d(q, NNC(p)) ≤ d(p, q) + Zp ≤ r + Zp ⇒ {Zp < d(p, NNC(q)} ⊆ {Zp < r + Zq} ⇒ {Zq < d(q, NNC(p)} ⊆ {Zq < r + Zp} ⇒ Pr[hC(p) = hC(q)] ≤ Pr[|Zq − Zp| < r] ⇒ Pr[hC(p) = hC(q)] ≥ Pr[|Zq − Zp| ≥ r] = p1 E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 12 / 44
16. 16. Towards LSH in generic metric space VoronoiLSH Hash probabilities bounds p1 ≥ p2: needs two assumptions, “Zq < δr” (δ > 0) and “c > 2δ + 1”; p1 > p2: needs consider a hypothetical case where “Zq = r − ” and “Zp = 2δr − ”, for > 0. E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 13 / 44
17. 17. Towards LSH in generic metric space VoronoiPlexLSH VoronoiPlex LSH - Hash function construction Multiple VoronoiLSH with a controlled number of distance computation input : size k of the sample, number of distinct partitioning w, and integer number of centroidsp output: A hash function hk,w,p selected ← new binary array of size k; subsample ← new integer multi-array of size w × p; for j ← 1 to w do Random sample S = {s1, · · · , sp} from {1, · · · , k}; for i ← 1 to p do subsample[j, i] ← si; selected[si] ← 1; end end hk,w,p ← (selected,subsample) ; Algorithm 1: Hash function building E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 14 / 44
18. 18. Towards LSH in generic metric space VoronoiPlexLSH VoronoiPlex LSH - Hashing algorithm input : Hash function object hk,w,p,Sample C = {c1, . . . , ck } ⊂ X (|C| = k) and a point q ∈ X output: Integer value hk,w,p(q) (selected,subsample) ← retrieved from hk,w,p distances ← new ﬂoating-point array of size k; for j ← 1 to k do if selected[j] == 1 then distances[j] ← d(q, cj) ; end end hasharray ← new integer array of size w; for i ← 1 to w do hasharray[i] ← element in subsample[i] that minimize distances[j] (varying j) ; end hk,w,p(q) ← hash(hasharray) ; Algorithm 2: Hash function ApplicationE.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 15 / 44
19. 19. Towards LSH in generic metric space VoronoiPlexLSH VoronoiPlex LSH 1 2 5 2 c1c2 c3 c4c5 c1 c3 c4 c3 c5 c2 c5 c1 c3 c5 c4 c2 h5,4,3={ { h5,4,3(p)= IEi=1,··· ,k [selected[i] = 1] = k − k(1 − p k )w O(k − k ) number of distance computation (intrinsic cost) a more complicated analysis for the extrinsic cost E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 16 / 44
20. 20. Towards LSH in generic metric space Parallel VoronoiLSH Parallel VoronoiLSH Dataﬂow programming distributed computation; Computing stages distributed in processors and nodes; Message-passing interface. E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 17 / 44
21. 21. Results Datasets Datasets APM (Arquivo Público Mineiro – The Public Archives in Minas Gerais) 2.871.300 feature vectors (SIFT descriptor is a 128 dimensional vector). queries dataset: 263.968 feature vectors with ground-truth. For the experiments we used 5000 queries uniformly sampled from the query dataset and performed a 10-NN search. Metric datasets: Listeria (20660/ 100) and English (66069 / 500 ) dictionary; BigANN (1B) for large scale experiments: (109 / 104). E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 18 / 44
22. 22. Results Experimental results APM 0.62 0.64 0.66 0.68 0.7 0.72 0.74 0.76 0.78 0.8 0.82 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 recall extensiveness DFLSH K-MedoidsLSH K-MeansLSH (a) Recall x Extensiveness (log scale) 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 recall extensiveness DFLSH K-MedoidsLSH K-MeansLSH L=1 L=5 L=8 (b) Recall x Number of hash functions L, Extensiveness (for 5000 cluster centers) E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 19 / 44
23. 23. Results Experimental results English dataset - VoronoiLSH and BPI 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 fraction of query time of linear scan 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00recall Voronoi LSH with K-means++, L=5 DFLSH, L=5 Voronoi LSH with K-means++, L=8 DFLSH, L=8 Brief Proximity Index (BPI) LSH Figure: Recall for Voronoi LSH and BPI LSH E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 20 / 44
24. 24. Results Experimental results Listeria 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.89 0.9 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01 0.011 recall extensivity DFLSH L=2 DFLSH L=3 (a) Recall x Extensivity 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 extensivity 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 recall w=2 w=5 w=10 W=2 W=5 W=10 VoronoiPlex LSH for L=1,nCluster=10 VoronoiPlex LSH for L=8,nCluster=10 (b) varying the size w of the key-length (10 centroids selected from a 4000 point sample set) E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 21 / 44
25. 25. Results Experimental results Large scale experiment (c) Query time / Recall (d) Parallel efﬁciency E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 22 / 44
26. 26. Conclusions Results and challenges Using metric partitioning techniques for hashing functions in metric space is a valid technique and should be further explored and developed; The experiments do not show any clear advantage in learning the seeds of the Voronoi diagram by clustering; It would be interesting to equip the analysis with more assumptions of the data; E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 23 / 44
27. 27. References References I [1] Fernando Akune. Indexação Multimídia escalável e busca por similaridade em alta dimensionalidade. M. sc., Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), 2011. [2] Fernando Akune, Eduardo Valle, and Ricardo Torres. MONORAIL: A Disk-Friendly Index for Huge Descriptor Databases. In 2010 20th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, pages 4145–4148. IEEE, August 2010. [3] Alexandr Andoni and Piotr Indyk. Near-Optimal Hashing Algorithms for Approximate Nearest Neighbor in High Dimensions. 2006 47th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS’06), pages 459–468, 2006. E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 24 / 44
28. 28. References References II [4] David Arthur and Sergei Vassilvitskii. k-means++: the advantages of careful seeding. In Proceedings of the eighteenth annual ACM-SIAM symposium on Discrete algorithms, SODA ’07, pages 1027–1035, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2007. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. [5] Sunil Arya and David M. Mount. Approximate nearest neighbor queries in ﬁxed dimensions. In Proceedings of the fourth annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete algorithms, SODA ’93, pages 271–280, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 1993. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. [6] Bahman Bahmani, Ashish Goel, and Rajendra Shinde. Efﬁcient distributed locality sensitive hashing. In Proceedings of the 21st ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, CIKM ’12, pages 2174–2178, New York, NY, USA, 2012. ACM. E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 25 / 44
29. 29. References References III [7] Mayank Bawa, Tyson Condie, and Prasanna Ganesan. LSH forest. In Proceedings of the 14th international conference on World Wide Web - WWW ’05, page 651, New York, New York, USA, 2005. ACM Press. [8] R.E. Bellman. Dynamic Programming. Dover Books on Computer Science Series. Dover Publications, Incorporated, 2003. [9] Stefan Berchtold, Daniel A. Keim, and Hans-Peter Kriegel. The x-tree: An index structure for high-dimensional data. In Proceedings of the 22th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, VLDB ’96, pages 28–39, San Francisco, CA, USA, 1996. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc. [10] Michael D. Beynon, Tahsin Kurc, Umit Catalyurek, Chialin Chang, Alan Sussman, and Joel Saltz. Distributed processing of very large datasets with DataCutter. Parallel Comput., 27(11):1457–1478, 2001. E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 26 / 44
30. 30. References References IV [11] Christian Böhm, Stefan Berchtold, and Daniel A. Keim. Searching in high-dimensional spaces: Index structures for improving the performance of multimedia databases. ACM Computing Surveys, 33(3):322–373, September 2001. [12] W. A. Burkhard and R. M. Keller. Some approaches to best-match ﬁle searching. Commun. ACM, 16(4):230–236, April 1973. [13] Edgar Chávez, Gonzalo Navarro, Ricardo Baeza-Yates, and José Luis Marroquín. Searching in metric spaces. ACM Computing Surveys, 33(3):273–321, September 2001. [14] Paolo Ciaccia, Marco Patella, and Pavel Zezula. M-tree: An efﬁcient access method for similarity search in metric spaces. In Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, VLDB ’97, pages 426–435, San Francisco, CA, USA, 1997. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc. E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 27 / 44
31. 31. References References V [15] Kenneth L Clarkson. Nearest-Neighbor Searching and Metric Space Dimensions. In Gregory Shakhnarovich, Trevor Darrell, and Piotr Indyk, editors, Nearest-Neighbor Methods in Learning and Vision: Theory and Practice (Neural Information Processing), Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems. The MIT Press, 2006. [16] Mayur Datar, Nicole Immorlica, Piotr Indyk, and Vahab S. Mirrokni. Locality-sensitive hashing scheme based on p-stable distributions. In Proceedings of the twentieth annual symposium on Computational geometry - SCG ’04, page 253, New York, New York, USA, 2004. ACM Press. [17] Ritendra Datta, Dhiraj Joshi, Jia Li, and James Z. Wang. Image retrieval. ACM Computing Surveys, 40(2):1–60, April 2008. E.S. Silva () Metric LSH Wednesday 8th October, 2014 28 / 44
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