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Mutations

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Mutations

  1. 1. LT #2I can define mutation and explain how mutations of a segment of DNA mayor may not affect an organism
  2. 2.  Mutations are heritable changes in genetic information. Mutagen: physical or chemical agent that can cause mutations in DNA Examples: X-rays, tobacco, pesticides, U-V light
  3. 3.  1) change DNA base sequence 2) Increase error rate in DNA replication 3) Weaken DNA strand causing breaks and inversions that change the chromosomes.
  4. 4.  1) Gene mutations  Change in one or a few nucleotides (A,C,G,T) 2) Chromosomal mutations  Changes in whole chromosomes
  5. 5.  1) Substitution  One base is changed to a different base. 2) Insertions: An extra base is added 3) Deletions: A base has been lost
  6. 6.  Original DNA strand: ATGCTATG 1) ATCTATG 2) ATGCTAATG 3) ATGCAATG
  7. 7.  1) Deletion:  Loss of all or part of a chromosome 2) Duplication: Extra copy of all or part of a chromosome
  8. 8.  3) Inversion:  Reverses the direction of parts of a chromosome 4) Translocation: Part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another.
  9. 9.  1) Most little or no effect 2) Few produce beneficial results 3) May disrupt gene function- negative results
  10. 10.  Genetic Mutations in Humans

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