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What was pre-industrial society like? 
• From 1300 to 1750: work and social life 
mixed 
• Children learnt to milk cows, c...
Wooden Plow
Diet in pre-industrial society 
• Families grew crops for home 
consumption 
• English diet consisted mostly of dark rye 
...
Diet and healthcare 
• Few fruits or vegetables, believed to cause 
disease, depression, and flatulence 
• Rarely bathed. ...
Population growth 
• Low growth rate 
Poverty 
War 
Plague 
Poor hygiene 
High death rates among 
young people 
• In the 1...
High mortality rates 
• Epidemics of influenza, typhoid fever, typhus, 
dysentery, and plague common. 
• Black Death kille...
Development of the world population
Wealth 
• Wealth concentrated in the hands of the few. 
• Most people lived on a subsistence level with 
little or no savi...
However 
• Society depended on peasants for 
- food and 
- taxes (a percentage of personal income paid 
to the nobles or t...
The Cottage industry 
• Agricultural families worked at night in their cottages 
to spin or weave cloth with rudimentary m...
The Cottage industry 
Typical domestic system home: single room dominated by a spinning wheel 
which is being worked by a ...
Stengths of the Domestic System 
• Workers could work at their own speed while at home 
or near their own home. 
• Childre...
And Weaknesses 
• production slow and not enough to meet the demand. 
• A better and faster system of production needed. 
...
The Beginnings of 
Industrialization
Why did it start in England 
• large population of workers, 
• extensive natural resources: 
water power and coal to fuel...
Why did it start in England 
• An expanding economy to support industrialization: 
Businesspeople invested in the manufact...
Inventions 
• The Textile Industry modernizes. 
• In 1733, a machinist named John Kay made a shuttle that sped back and 
f...
Textile 
• Richard Arkwright invented the water frame in 1769. This 
machine used the waterpower from rapid streams to dri...
Improvements in Transportation 
• The steam engine 
• Road transport 
• Railways 
• … 
• BACK TO YOUR BOOKLETS p. 12 
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Preindustrial society

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Pre-industrial society and the origins of the industrial revolution

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Preindustrial society

  1. 1. What was pre-industrial society like? • From 1300 to 1750: work and social life mixed • Children learnt to milk cows, churn butter & farm animals • Farmers relied on tools that changed little over time such as wooden plows.
  2. 2. Wooden Plow
  3. 3. Diet in pre-industrial society • Families grew crops for home consumption • English diet consisted mostly of dark rye bread and porridge, with very little meat.
  4. 4. Diet and healthcare • Few fruits or vegetables, believed to cause disease, depression, and flatulence • Rarely bathed. • Belief that physical suffering from illness was divine way of purifying soul. • Medieval and early modern physicians relied on astrology and bloodletting.
  5. 5. Population growth • Low growth rate Poverty War Plague Poor hygiene High death rates among young people • In the 1600s 25% of newborn children died before their first birthday • and another 25% died before their tenth. • « I lost two or three children as nurslings not without regret, but without great grief. » (Cipolla 127)
  6. 6. High mortality rates • Epidemics of influenza, typhoid fever, typhus, dysentery, and plague common. • Black Death killed 25 million Europeans from 1348 to 1351 out of a total population of 80 million = in just 3 years, almost 1/3 of the population of Europe died.
  7. 7. Development of the world population
  8. 8. Wealth • Wealth concentrated in the hands of the few. • Most people lived on a subsistence level with little or no savings. • Most peasants struggled simply to meet their basic needs. • In England between the 15th and 18th centuries, 70 to 80% of household income went to buying food. As opposed to 25% nowadays • Buying even one piece of clothing was a luxury.
  9. 9. However • Society depended on peasants for - food and - taxes (a percentage of personal income paid to the nobles or the government). • Though they controlled wealth in the form of land, the clergy and the nobility not taxed, a further burden on peasants and craftsmen.
  10. 10. The Cottage industry • Agricultural families worked at night in their cottages to spin or weave cloth with rudimentary machines, such as old spinning wheels. • The merchants: - provide raw materials (wool or cotton) to the families, - pay the workers for the finished product (such as woven or spun cloth), - take the goods to market, and - keep the profit from the sale, reinvesting in his or her trade
  11. 11. The Cottage industry Typical domestic system home: single room dominated by a spinning wheel which is being worked by a young lady - the spinster. Food is being cooked in the same room. A ladder on the left of the picture will take the workers to their bedrooms once work for the day is finished and a window allows for light and ventilation.
  12. 12. Stengths of the Domestic System • Workers could work at their own speed while at home or near their own home. • Children better treated than in the factory system. • Mothers work at home = someone to look after the children. • Conditions of work better as windows could be open, • people worked at their own speed and • rested when they needed to. • Meals could be taken when needed. • Tension at work minimal as family worked as a unit.
  13. 13. And Weaknesses • production slow and not enough to meet the demand. • A better and faster system of production needed. • Loss of time as materials taken from cottage to cottage (production was done in several stages) • Small cottages could not take advantage of new sources of power. (such as water) • No quality lifestyle : - Four year old children work in the domestic system - Waste gathered around country cottages - Small wages
  14. 14. The Beginnings of Industrialization
  15. 15. Why did it start in England • large population of workers, • extensive natural resources: water power and coal to fuel the new machines iron ore to construct machines, tools, and buildings  rivers for inland transportation harbors from which merchant ships set sail
  16. 16. Why did it start in England • An expanding economy to support industrialization: Businesspeople invested in the manufacture of new inventions. • Highly developed banking system: availability of bank loans to invest in new machinery and expand operations. • Growing overseas trade & economic prosperity led to the increased demand for goods. • Political stability : Britain took part in many wars in the 1700s, none occurred on British soil. • Parliament also passed laws to help encourage and protect business ventures.
  17. 17. Inventions • The Textile Industry modernizes. • In 1733, a machinist named John Kay made a shuttle that sped back and forth on wheels. Which doubled the work a weaver could do in a day.
  18. 18. Textile • Richard Arkwright invented the water frame in 1769. This machine used the waterpower from rapid streams to drive spinning wheels
  19. 19. Improvements in Transportation • The steam engine • Road transport • Railways • … • BACK TO YOUR BOOKLETS p. 12 

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