The Cardiovascular System – 3 procedures<br />Elizabeth Gregory<br />Bio 120<br />June 21, 2010<br />
The Cardiovascular system<br />The cardiovascular system consists of the pump and vessels that distribute blood to all areas of the body, this allows for the delivery of necessary substances to the cells of the body as well as the removal of wastes.<br />This presentation will cover three common medical procedures performed on the cardiovascular system; two diagnostic and one therapeutic.<br />
Cardiac perfusion scan-diagnostic procedure<br />What is it?<br />A cardiac perfusion scan measures the amount of blood in your heart muscle at rest and during activity. It is often done to find out what may be causing chest painor after a heart attack to see if areas of the heart are not getting enough blood or to find out how much heart muscle has been damaged from the heart attack.<br />During the scan, a camera takes pictures of the heart after a special test medicine (usually radioactive thallium) is injected into a vein in the arm. The tracer travels through the blood and into the heart muscle. As the tracer moves through the heart muscle, areas that have good blood flow absorb itAreas that do not absorb tracer may not be getting enough blood or may have been damaged .<br />Two sets of pictures may be made during a cardiac perfusion scan. One set is taken while you are resting. Another set is taken after your heart has been stressed, either by exercise or after you have been given a medicine. <br />
Cardiac perfusion scan cont.<br />Why is it done?<br />A cardiac perfusion scan is done to:<br /><ul><li>Find the cause of unexplained chest pain or chest pain brought on by exercise.
Check for the location and amount of damage caused by a heart attack.
Help make treatment decisions for a person with CAD.
Check to see that the heart is getting enough blood after heart surgery or angioplasty.
Identify a congenital heart defect and determine how serious it is. These scans may also be done following surgery to correct a congenital heart defect.</li></li></ul><li>Cardiac enzymes test-diagnostic procedure<br />What is it?<br />Blood test to determine the level of enzymes specific to the myocardium (heart muscles) in the blood. An increase in the enzymes may indicate heart muscle damage such as myocardial infarction. These enzymes include;<br /><ul><li>creatine phosphokinase (CPK),
glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT). </li></ul>The blood test most commonly used to confirm the existence of heart muscle damage is the creatine kinase or CK for short. A small fraction of the CK enzyme, CK-MB, is often measured as well. CK-MB shows an increase above normal in a person's blood test about six hours after the start of a heart attack. It reaches its peak level in about 18 hours and returns to normal in 24 to 36 hours. The peak level and the return to normal can be delayed in a person who's had a large heart attack, especially if they don't get early and aggressive treatment<br />
Cardiac enzymes test cont.<br />Why is it done?<br />Blood test to determine the level of enzymes specific to the myocardium (heart muscles) in the blood. An increase in the enzymes may indicate heart muscle damage such as myocardial infarction. This test can screen for possible infarctions.<br />This test is a cost effective measure for initial screening.<br />
Ligation and Stripping – therapeutic procedure<br />What is it?<br />Vein ligation and stripping is a minor surgery. During this surgery, one or more incisions are made over the damaged veins, and the vein is tied off (ligated). If the ligation cuts off a faulty valve and the vein and valves below the faulty valve are healthy, the vein may be left in place to continue circulating blood through other veins that still have valves that work well.<br />It is also used to remove a damaged vein and prevent complications of vein damage. If several valves in a vein and the vein itself are heavily damaged, the vein (or the diseased part of the vein) is removed (stripped). An incision is made below the vein, a flexible instrument is threaded up the vein to the first incision, and the vein is grasped and removed.<br />
Ligation and Stripping cont.<br />Why is it done?<br />Vein ligation and stripping is generally done on large varicose veins. It also can be done to prevent venous skin ulcers from returning after treatment. This surgery may be used when:<br />You want to get rid of varicose veins for cosmetic reasons and don't have other health problems that would make surgery more risky.<br />Your legs ache, swell, or feel heavy, especially after prolonged standing.<br />A varicose vein bleeds.<br />Open sores (ulcers) develop because of varicose veins or poor blood circulation in a vein.<br />The vein is damaged in the section where it joins the superficial and deep veins in the knee or groin.<br />If you have both small and large varicose veins, you may have more than one type of treatment. Following vein ligation and stripping to treat large varicose veins, you may have sclerotherapy to treat smaller varicose veins. <br />