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Hypertension

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What is high blood pressure?
What causes it?
What are the health consequences?
Recommendations for management of high blood pressure

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Hypertension

  1. 1. Hypertension Control Dave Elger, M.A.
  2. 2. Objectives y What is high blood pressure? y What causes high blood pressure? y What does it do to the body? y Recommendations for lifestyle change y Tips for healthy eating
  3. 3. What is Blood Pressure? y The force of blood against the wall of the arteries. y Systolic- as the heart beats y Diastolic - as the heart relaxes y Normal Blood pressure (<120 mm Hg and <80 mm Hg)
  4. 4. High Blood Pressure (HBP) Facts y A consistent blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or higher is considered HIGH. y An estimated 65 MILLION of adult Americans over 18 yrs old have it (31%) y 62% of Americans over 55 yrs of age have it y At age 55, 9 out of 10 of those with normal BP will eventually develop HBP
  5. 5. New Category for Blood Pressure Pre Hypertension y Between 120/80 and 139/89 mm/Hg (>140/90 is considered high) Risk of cv disease starts to rise at blood pressures over 115/75 mm/Hg and doubles with each increment of 20/10 mg Hg!
  6. 6. Detection of “the silent killer” (often there are no symptoms) y 2 or more readings of 140/90mm Hg or higher taken on more than one occasion.
  7. 7. Tips for assessing an accurate blood pressure (you don’t want to be misdiagnosed!) y Don’t eat, exercise, drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for 1 hr. before. y Empty your bladder. y Sit relaxed for five minutes with back supported and feet flat on the ground. y Your arm should be supported and even with your heart when tested y Make sure the correct cuff size is used (generally arm circumference > 13” requires a large cuff) y Wear short sleeves so your arm is exposed.
  8. 8. Risk Factors for HBP y Sedentary Lifestyle (couch y Family History potato) y African-American y Poor Diet y Some sports/weight y Aging- vessels lose loss supplements or elasticity (> 60 yrs age) medications (cold y Tobacco, alcohol, caffeine medications, y Obesity/Overweight antihistamines) y Sleep Apnea y Oral Contraceptives y Stress (type “A” y Male sex personality)
  9. 9. How Does HBP Effect the Body? y Can cause a break in a weakened blood vessel which then bleeds in the brain. ok e! S tr
  10. 10. The Heart y High Blood Pressure (HPB) is a major risk factor for heart attack. y HBP is the number one risk factor for congestive heart failure. Amer 00icans n 5 millio 550,0 CHF- ually- have n ses anssoc. ew ca Heart A n ican Amer
  11. 11. The Kidneys y Kidneys act as filters to rid the body of wastes. y High blood pressure can narrow and thicken the blood vessels. y Waste builds up in the blood, can result in kidney damage. 1 in 9 Americans (20 million) have Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) another 20 million are at risk -National Kidney Foundation
  12. 12. The Eyes Hypertensive retinopathy y Can eventually cause blood vessels to break and bleed in the eye. y Swelling of the optic nerve, retina damage y Can result in blurred vision or even blindness.
  13. 13. -What can you do to prevent or reduce high blood pressure?
  14. 14. 1. Exercise y Low to moderate intensity cardiovascular improves blood flow and keeps vessels elastic and healthy y Heart becomes a stronger more efficient pump in late 30 m Accumu he most days of t week If you already have HBP, you can expect an ave. drop of 10 mm Hg
  15. 15. 2. Quit Tobacco y Smoking injures the walls of blood vessels accelerating hardening of the arteries. y Smokeless tobacco contains high levels of sodium y Both constrict or “squeeze” arteries
  16. 16. 3. Decrease your intake of sodium and increase potassium y Humans evolved on a low sodium, high potassium diet. y Today’s modern diet is high in sodium and low in potassium.
  17. 17. Watch out for Hidden Sodium AMOUNT OF SODIUM y 3000 mg Frozen pizza (3 slices) y 1213 mg Taco Bell Dbl Burrito supreme (beef) y 1500 mg KFC Original recipe y 1213 mg BK Whopper w/cheese y 1070 mg McDonald’s Big Mac y 890 mg 1 can Campbell’s chicken noodle soup
  18. 18. Check your food labels <2,300 mg/day is recommended •5% daily value or less is low •20% daily value or more is high
  19. 19. Eat More Potassium Rich Foods y Banana y Broccoli y Tomato y Corn y Orange juice y Cucumbers y Spinach y Dates/raisins y Cantaloupe y Most salt water fish y Dried beans y Brussells Sprouts y Almonds y Grapefruits
  20. 20. 4. Get 1,000 mg Calcium Studies indicate low calcium may contribute to high bp Mgs. of Calcium y ¾ cup Total Cereal 1,000 mg y 1 cup skim milk 300 y 1 oz. Swiss cheese 270 y 1 cup low-fat plain yogurt 400 y 3 oz sardines canned 220 y 8 oz orange juice 350 y 3 oz. shrimp, canned 145
  21. 21. 5. Try the DASH Diet (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) y Diet rich in fruits and vegetables found effective in clinical study on reducing high blood pressure
  22. 22. DASH Results y BP starting dropping within days FOR those put on a diet low in fat and high in fruits and veggies (ave 11 systolic and 5.5 diastolic points)! y "The beauty of DASH is that it doesn't take a genius to follow," says Norman Kaplan, a hypertension expert at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center in Dallas. "You just cut the fat, double your fruits and vegetables, and use low-fat dairy products."
  23. 23. DASH EATING PLAN y 7-8 daily servings grains & grain products y 4-5 daily servings of vegetables y 4-5 daily servings of fruits y 2-3 daily servings of low fat dairy y 2 or less daily servings of meat y 4-5 servings per week of nuts, seeds, beans y 2-3 daily servings of fats and oils y 5 servings of sweets weekly
  24. 24. 6. Moderate Alcohol Intake (1-2 drinks) Alcohol raises blood pressure and can harm liver, brain, and heart What counts as a drink? y 12 oz beer y 5 oz of wine y 1.5 oz of 80 proof whiskey
  25. 25. 7. Maintain Healthy Weight y Blood pressure rises as weight rises. y Obesity is also a risk factor for heart disease. y Even a 10 lb weight loss can reduce blood pressure.
  26. 26. 8. Supplements to AVOID! y Any supplement advertised to speed up metabolism, burn fat, or lose weight should be avoided! y Some reports of creatine elevating BP
  27. 27. 9. Other Treatment y If Lifestyle Modification is not working, blood pressure medication may be needed (i.e. diuretics, beta blockers, ace inhibitors)
  28. 28. Summary: Tips for lowering high blood pressure y Regular cardiovascular exercise is a must! y Quitting tobacco is also a must! y Reduce sodium and increase potassium y Increase your intake of calcium from low-fat sources y Follow the high fiber DASH Diet (lots of fruit and veggies). y Use alcohol in moderation only. y If you are overweight, losing fat can help significantly! y Avoid performance-enhancing supplements! y Take your medication if required!
  29. 29. About Dave Elger y Dave holds a bachelor’s degree from the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point and a master’s degree from Ball State University in exercise physiology. He can be contacted at elgerdh@mail.com.

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