Animal nutrition

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  • Recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The climber symbolizes exercise. The widths of the colors represent approximate proportions. The pyramid emphasizes diversity and moderation.
  • Animal nutrition

    1. 1. Chapter 41Animal Nutrition
    2. 2. A nutritionally adequate animal diet satisfies three needs: Fuel (chemical energy) Organic raw materials for biosynthesis (especially carbon-based molecules) Essential nutrients (substances that the animal needs, but cannot synthesize from any precursors on its own)
    3. 3. A nutritionally inadequate animal diet fails to satisfy the three basic needs we just covered Undernourishment – insufficient calories (energy)Overnourishment – too many calories & too much stored fat Malnourishment – a diet missing one or more essential nutrients
    4. 4. Energy Energy in nutrients is measured in Calories(kcal = energy to raise the temperature of 1 L of water 1º C)An “average” human body uses about 1,550 Calories/day
    5. 5. Principal categories of nutrients: Lipids – found in lipid membranes, etc.; including essential fatty acids9 Calories per gram (a principal energy source)
    6. 6. Principal categories of nutrients: Proteins – building blocks and enzymes; animals require 20 amino acids, including essential amino acids4 Calories per gram (usually a secondary energy source, since the breakdown of proteins produces urea, a potentially toxic compound)
    7. 7. Principal categories of nutrients:Proteins – building blocks and enzymes; animals require 20 amino acids, including essential amino acids Fig. 41.10
    8. 8. Principal categories of nutrients:Carbohydrates – C-based building blocks and energy 4 Calories per gram; can be a very quick energy source (e.g., glucose)
    9. 9. Principal categories of nutrients:Vitamins – essential organic molecules required in small quantities
    10. 10. Water-Soluble Vitamins – excess excreted by kidneysTable 41.1
    11. 11. Fat-Soluble Vitamins – can be stored in fat tissuesTable 41.1
    12. 12. Principal categories of nutrients: Minerals – essential elements and inorganic molecules(similar to mineral macro- and micro-nutrients required by plants, but also including selenium, iodine, etc.)
    13. 13. MineralsTable 41.2
    14. 14. The food guide pyramid US Department of Agriculture Grains Fruits Milk Vegetables Oils Meat & Beanshttp://www.mypyramid.gov
    15. 15. Food processing Ingestion – food is brought into the digestive tract Digestion – mechanical and chemical breakdown (especially via enzymatic hydrolysis, i.e., splitting macromolecules into their constituent monomers)Absorption – cells uptake small molecules that can be used in biochemical reactions and biosynthesis Elimination – undigested material passes out of the body
    16. 16. Food Processing in Humans Begins in the mouth… Salivary glands produce saliva that lubricates the bolus of foodFig. 41.15
    17. 17. Food Processing in Humans Begins in the mouth… Saliva contains amylase, which hydrolyzes starchFig. 41.15
    18. 18. Food Processing in Humans Begins in the mouth… Saliva also contains some antibodies to help prevent infectionsFig. 41.15
    19. 19. Food Processing in Humans Begins in the mouth… Saliva helps dissolve acids and sugars, so that they can be detected by the taste budsFig. 41.15
    20. 20. Food Processing in HumansThe muscular tongue manipulatesthe bolus and passes it to thepharynxThis triggers the swallowing reflexFig. 41.16
    21. 21. Food Processing in HumansThe larynx moves upward and tipsthe epiglottis over the glottisFig. 41.16
    22. 22. Food Processing in HumansThe larynx moves upward and tipsthe epiglottis over the glottisFig. 41.16
    23. 23. Food Processing in HumansPharynxEpiglottisEsophagusTrachea
    24. 24. Food Processing in HumansPharynxEpiglottis ?EsophagusTrachea
    25. 25. Food Processing in HumansPharynxEpiglottis UvulaEsophagusTrachea
    26. 26. Food Processing in HumansThe esophogeal sphincter relaxes,allowing the esophagus to openFig. 41.16
    27. 27. Food Processing in HumansOnce the bolus has entered theesophagus, the larynx moves backdown, opening the tracheaFig. 41.16
    28. 28. Food Processing in HumansPeristalsis (rhythmic contractions)carries the bolus to the stomachFig. 41.16
    29. 29. Food Processing in HumansThe stomach is in the upper abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm Fig. 41.15
    30. 30. Food Processing in HumansThe stomach secretes gastric juice and mixes it with swallowed food Gastric juice contains hydrochloric acid and pepsin Fig. 41.15
    31. 31. Food Processing in HumansMucus coating helps prevent digestion of the stomach itself Fig. 41.15
    32. 32. Food Processing in Humans Food and gastric juice become acid chymeAcid chyme is kept in the stomach by the pyloric sphincter Fig. 41.15
    33. 33. Food Processing in HumansDigestion continues in the small intestine Small diameter, muscular tube Fig. 41.15
    34. 34. Food Processing in Humans Digestion continues in the small intestineIn the first section, digestive secretions are addedfrom the pancreas, gallbladder, and intestine itself Fig. 41.15
    35. 35. Food Processing in Humans Pancreatic juice:Sodium bicarbonate, which neutralizes the acid chyme Fig. 41.19
    36. 36. Food Processing in Humans Pancreatic juice:Amylases, lipases, nucleases, proteases (hydrolytic enzymes) Fig. 41.19
    37. 37. Food Processing in Humans Bile:Produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and contains bile salts Fig. 41.19
    38. 38. Food Processing in Humans Bile:A detergent that helps disperse fats into droplets, thereby aiding their digestion (since they arrive essentially intact to the first portion of the small intestine) Fig. 41.19
    39. 39. Food Processing in HumansMost absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestine Fig. 41.15
    40. 40. Food Processing in HumansMost absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestine SEM Fig. 41.23
    41. 41. Food Processing in HumansMost absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestine Fig. 41.23
    42. 42. Food Processing in HumansFolds, villi, and microvilli create a very large surface area for absorption Fig. 41.23
    43. 43. Food Processing in Humans Capillaries line the core of each villus,surrounding a lacteal (part of the lymphatic system) Fig. 41.23
    44. 44. Food Processing in Humans Most nutrients are absorbed into capillaries thatconverge in the hepatic portal vessel (leads to the liver) Fig. 41.23
    45. 45. Food Processing in HumansFats are absorbed into the lacteals, which lead throughthe lymphatic system to large veins of the circ. system Fig. 41.23
    46. 46. Food Processing in HumansThe small intestine meets the large intestine (colon) at a T-junctionOne arm of the T is a cecum and its appendix, whereas the other arm leads upward Chapter 1 Fig. 41.15
    47. 47. Food Processing in HumansMuch of the remaining water is absorbed from the contents of the large intestine Chapter 1 Fig. 41.15
    48. 48. Food Processing in HumansPopulations of bacteria inhabit the large intestine; some produce vitamins (e.g., B complex and K) Chapter 1 Fig. 41.15
    49. 49. Food Processing in HumansThe final compartment is the rectum Chapter 1 Fig. 41.15
    50. 50. Food Processing in Humans The final compartment is the rectumUndigested material is eliminated along with large quantities of bacteria (dead and alive) Chapter 1 Fig. 41.15
    51. 51. Digestive Systems are Adapted to their Owners’ Lifestyles Sponges and heterotrophic protists use intracellular digestion Waste is expelled by H2O out exocytosisH2O (+ food) Food enters byenters pores endocytosis Food flows into choanocytes See Fig. 33.4
    52. 52. Digestive Systems are Adapted to their Owners’ Lifestyles Hydras and most other animals use extracellular digestion Digestive Cells Mouth/Anus Ingested Crustacean Gastrovascular Cavity See Fig. 41.13
    53. 53. Digestive Systems are Adapted to their Owners’ LifestylesExtracellular digestion in a tube (complete digestive tract or alimentary canal) is the most efficient and effective The animal can eat frequently, even while digesting the previous meal Specialized compartments and digestive organs can contribute to the process sequentially
    54. 54. Digestive Systems are Adapted to their Owners’ LifestylesExtracellular digestion in a tube (complete digestive tract or alimentary canal) is the most efficient and effective Intestine AnusMouth Esophagus Crop Gizzard Pharynx See Fig. 41.14
    55. 55. Digestive Systems are Adapted to their Owners’ LifestylesLike earthworms, birds lack teeth, so their muscular gizzards help break apart hard food particles Stomach Esophagus Rectum Crop Gizzard Anus / Cloaca Intestine See Fig. 41.14
    56. 56. Digestive Systems are Adapted to their Owners’ Lifestyles Animal digestive systems cannot break down cellulose Ruminant animals (cows, sheep, etc.) have stomachs with several chambers The first two are fermentation vats with microbes that produce cellulase Fig. 41.28
    57. 57. Digestive Systems are Adapted to their Owners’ Lifestyles Vertebrate dentition generally matches the diet An adult human has 32 teeth: Incisors for cutting Canines for tearing Premolars and molars for grinding Fig. 41.26
    58. 58. Digestive Systems are Adapted to their Owners’ Lifestyles Vertebrate intestines generally match the diet Fig. 41.27
    59. 59. Digestive Systems are Adapted to their Owners’ Lifestyles Digestive enzymes generally match the diet E.g., most adult mammals do not produce lactase

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