AD 400THE ANGLO SAXON MOVE IN ASTHE ROMANS LEAVEAFTER 400 YEARS RULE, THEROMANS LEAVE BRITAIN ANDTHE ANGLO SAXON TAKE OVER
AD 597AUGUSTINE PREACHESCHRISTIANITYAUGUSTINE ARRIVES INENGLAND TO PREACHCHRISTIANITY
AD 672THE VENERABLE BEDE IS BORNTHE VENERABLE BEDE, THEFATHER OF ENGLISH HISTORY, ISBORN
AD 787THE FIRST VIKING ATTACK ONBRITAINVIKING ATTACKS ONANGLO SAXON ENGLAND STARTIN 787
AD 800ARMIES OF VIKINGS ROAMBRITAINBY THE AD 800S, GREAT ARMIESOF VIKINGS ROAM ENGLAND
AD 849ALFRED THE GREAT IS BORNALFRED, THE ONLY KING INBRITISH HISTORY CALLED"GREAT" IS BORN
AD 899KING ALFRED THE GREAT DIESALFRED THE GREAT, KING ALL OFENGLAND, DIES
AD 1042KING EDWARD "THE CONFESSOR"BECOMES KINGEDWARD, SON OF ELTHERED BECOMESKING. HE IS VERY RELIGIOUS AND ISCALLED "EDWARD THE CONFESSOR"
AD 1066THE BATTLE OF HASTINGSWILLIAM THE CONQUERORS NORMANARMY LANDS IN SUSSEX. HAROLDHURRIES SOUTH AND THE TWO ARMIESFIGHT THE BATTLE OF HASTINGS. (14OCTOBER 1066). THE NORMANS WIN.HAROLD IS KILLED. WILLIAM BECOMESKING
Old English poetry falls broadly into two styles or fieldsof reference, the heroic Germanic and the Christian.With a few exceptions, almost all Old English poets areanonymous.Even though all extant Old English poetry is written andliterate, it is assumed that Old English poetry was anoral craft that was preformed by a scop andaccompanied by a harp.
CLASSICAL AND LATIN POETRY• Several Old English poems are adaptations of lateclassical philosophical texts. The longest is a10th-century translation of Boethius Consolationof Philosophy contained in the Cotton manuscriptOtho A.vi. Another is The Phoenix in the ExeterBook, an allegorisation of the De ave phoenice byLactantius.• Other short poems derive from the Latin bestiarytradition. Some examples include The Panther,The Whale and The Partridge.
The hypotheses of Milman Parry and Albert Lord on theHomeric Question came to be applied (by Parry andLord, but also by Francis Magoun) to verse written in OldEnglish. That is, the theory proposes that certain featuresof at least some of the poetry may be explained bypositing oral-formulaic composition. While Anglo-Saxon(Old English) epic poetry may bear some resemblance toAncient Greek epics such as the Iliad and Odyssey, thequestion of if and how Anglo-Saxon poetry was passeddown through an oral tradition remains a subject ofdebate, and the question for any particular poem unlikelyto be answered with perfect certainty.
Beowulf is the oldest poem in theEnglish language, so everythingwritten since Beowulf stems fromit in some wayThe story of Beowulf encompassescommon themes that we still see inEnglish literature todayBeowulf is simply good writing
In some ways, it doesn’t matterwhat you read, but how you readit, so…since Beowulf came first,you might as well start there.Studying Old English improves yourunderstanding of modern EnglishIt’s a great story
Setting: Beowulf’s time and place•Although Beowulf was written inEnglish, it is set in what is nowSweden, where a tribe called theGeats lived.•The story may take place as earlyas 400 or 500 A.D.
Caedmon - a 7th-CenturyPoetCaedmon was one of the religious writers of the time. His workswere basedmainly on the Old Testament. Some historians have attributed toCaedmonwriting a 3,000-verse poem about the creation of the world(Genesis), whichbasically follows the Bible text with some departures. He may havealso writtentwo other works, Exodus and Daniel, though some feel that all threeworks haveanonymous authorship. Exodus deals with the Israelite escape fromEgypt andthe miraculous crossing of the Red Sea. Daniel includes the fall ofJerusalem, thetwo dreams of Nebuchadnezzar and Daniels interpretation of them,and themiraculous survival of Daniels three friends in the fiery furnace. Ashort hymn in
Cynewulf- a 9th-CenturyPoetA later poet, Cynewulf, and his followers, drew on the NewTestament, aswell as historical events connected with Christianity. His worksinclude TheFates of the Apostles, a short martyrology, The Ascension (or ChristII), a homily(lecture on moral conduct) and biblical narrative, and Juliana, thestory of asaint. The most famous is Elene (Helene), which describesConstantines victoryunder the sign of the cross, his conversion, and his motherslegendary miraculousdiscovery of the original cross in Jerusalem. At this time, the "HolyCross" cultwas spreading across Europe and the cross was becoming sacred.Over thecenturies, it would be used as a symbol giving blessing to theexpression of mans
Nu scylun hergan hefaenricaes uardmetudæs maecti end his modgidancuerc uuldurfadur sue he uundra gihuaeseci dryctin or astelidæhe aerist scop aelda barnumheben til hrofe haleg scepen.tha middungeard moncynnæs uardeci dryctin æfter tiadæfirum foldu frea allmectigTerjemahanMaka marilah kita sekarang memuja Penjaga Kerajaan Sorgawikekuasaan Sang Pencipta dan daya pikirNya,karya Bapa yang Jaya, bagaimana Beliau, Tuhan abadimendirikan permulaan setiap mukjizat.Bagi anak manusia, Beliau, Sang Pencipta Sucipertama membuat sorga sebagai atap, laluPenjaga umat manusia, Tuhan abadiTuhan Yang Mahakuasa kemudian membuat madyapadabumi, bagi manusia.--(Caedmon, Himne, St Petersburg Bede)
Prose developed later than poetry – in the ninthcentury. But sometimes it also partly contained thecharacteristics of poetry. It was influenced byLatin, the language of the church and the educated.It consisted of factual, historical, and religiouswritings.OLD ENGLISH PROSE
King Alfred the Great (reigned 871-900), one of the most significantrulers of the first millenium, after making peace with theVikings, madehis kingdom into a cultural centre. He translated many works fromLatin, especially in the areas of religion, history, philosophy.This wasthe foundation of the written national language.The first translatedwas inclided The Pastor’s Book containing ideals for a pastor, with whichAlfred as a secular ruler identified. He also traslated Baede’s ChurchHistory and other historical accounts. In addition, Alfred compiledmedical information, annals, chronicles, and information for law books.His works lacked originality, and were more instructive and educationalthan artistic and beautiful.
Alfred sought to repair thedamage that theVikinginvasions had infliicted onEnglish culture and learning,especially among the parishclergy. He supervisedtranslations of classics oftheology and history by Gregorythe Great, Augustine of Hippoand theVenerable Bede.King Alfred
The first half of the tenth century sawAlfred’s successors expand politically andmilitarily, but not culturally due to exhaustionfrom frequent battles with the Vikings. Only theannals continued and some poetry aboutvictories over the Vikings. The Anglo-SaxonChronicle is the best-known work of historicalrecords spannig even beyond the Normanconquest. It contains both prose and poetry.
In the second half of the tenth centurycame cultural enlivenment through theBenedictian reform, a monastic reform whichresulted in a religious revival. The main literarystyles included homilies, sermons, stories ofsaints’ lives, and Bible translations. The chiefautors wereAelfric andWulfstan.
Aelfric abbot of Eynsham, wrote threecycles of forty homilies each (two volumes ofCatholic Homilies and Lives of the Saints), as wellas other homilies, pastoral letter, and severaltranslations. His writings were clear tounderstand and beautiful in style. His alliterativeprose, which looselu imitated the rhythms ofOld English poetry, influenced writers long afterthe Norman conquest.
Wulfstan, the archbishop of York,wrote civil and church-related legal codesas well as homilies. He denounced themorals of his time and exhorted people torepentance. The belief was that the Vikingoccupation and the resulting oppessionand suffering were the result of sin, andthat the end of the world ha at hand.
Drama is the specific mode offiction represented inperformance. The term of drama comes froma Greek word meaning "action"(Classical Greek: δρᾶμα, drama),which is derived from the verbmeaning "to do" or "to act"(Classical Greek: δράω, draō).
• period known as the English Renaissance,approximately, saw a flowering of the drama andall the arts1500—1660. The two candidates forthe earliest comedy in English Nicholas UdallsRalph Roister Doister (c.1552) and theanonymous Gammer Gurtons Needle (c.1566),belong to the 16th century.
• During the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603) and then JamesI (1603–25), in the late 16th and early 17th century, aLondon-centred culture, that was both courtly andpopular, produced great poetry and drama. The Englishplaywrights were intrigued by Italian model: a conspicuouscommunity of Italian actors had settled in London.• The linguist and lexicographer John Florio (1553–1625),whose father was Italian, was a royal language tutor at theCourt of James I, and a possible friend and influence onWilliam Shakespeare, had brought much of the Italianlanguage and culture to England. He was also thetranslator of Montaigne into English. The earliestElizabethan plays includes Gorboduc (1561) by Sackvilleand Norton and Thomas Kyds (1558–94) revenge tragedyThe Spanish Tragedy (1592), that influenced ShakespearesHamlet.
William Shakespeare, figure of the English Renaissance,Born Baptised 26 April 1564 (birth dateunknown)Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire,EnglandDied 23April 1616 (aged 52)Stratford-upon-Avon,Warwickshire, EnglandOccupationPlaywright, poet, actorNationality EnglishPeriod English RenaissanceSpouse(s) Anne Hathaway (m. 1582–1616)Children Susanna HallHamnet ShakespeareJudith Quineyparents John Shakespeare (father)Mary Shakespeare (mother)
• The origin of drama goes back to brief scenes that monksacted out in churches to iustrate Bible stories.These laterdeveloped into full-lenght plays.• Sources of drama were primarily Chatolic traditions andceremonies that were gradually becoming more wordly.• The Chatolic church throughout Europe controlled almostthe entire ideological sphere, including literary art.• Drama was developing in churches where the whole societyfrom the king to the lowest citizen gathered.• There has two strong undercurrents influenced early drama: Folk plays based on ancient nature culls and pagantraditional ; and classic Greek an Latin drama which werepreserved, at least in rudimentary form, throughtout theDarkAges.• Chatolic services were often in the form of drama withcolourful robes,recitation,singing,and acting.
What makes different???Elizabethan : Restoration : Pertunjukan dilaksanakan siang hari dantidak mengenal waktu istirahat. Tempat adegan ditandai dengan ucapandengan disampaikan dalam dialog para tokoh. Tokoh wanita dimainkan oleh pemainanak-anak laki-laki.Tidak pemain wanita. Penontonnya berbagai lapisanmasyarakat dan diramaikan oleh penjualmakanan dan minuman. Menggunakan naskah lakon. Corak pertunjukannya merupakanperpaduan antara teater keliling denganteater sekolah dan akademi yang keklasik-klasikan. Tema cerita bersifat umum danpenonton sudah mengenalnya. Tokoh wanita diperankan oleh pemainwanita. Penonton tidak lagi semua lapisanmasyarakat, tetapi hanya kaum menengahdan kaum atasan. Gedung teater mencontoh gaya Italia. Pertunjukan diselenggarakan di gedungproscenium yang diperluas denganmenambah area yang disebut apron, sehingga terjadi komunikasi yang intimantara pemain dan penonton. Setting panggung bergambar perspektifdan lebih bercorak umum, misalnya tamanatau istana.