Last mile broadband and the case             for IPv6              e-ASIA 2011       Dhaka, 1-3 December 2011    Sanjaya, ...
Overview• Internet Evolution• Internet Addressing & Management• IP Address Status• The Next Step: IPv6• Conclusions       ...
Internet Fundamentals• Open network, open standards  • Developed within IETF system (RFC series)  • TCP/IP, DNS, DHCP, HTT...
Internet Fundamentals• Also platform for competition among ad hoc  standards and innovations  • Application protocols: VOI...
The “Narrow Waist”                  Phone/Fax/SMSApplications       TV/VOD/conf                   “The Internet”  Network ...
The “Narrow Waist” – Tomorrow                   Voice, email, IM  Applications     Video, TV, conf                     WWW...
Broadband and Mobile• Acceleration of Internet function and  growth, simultaneously  • Broadband: more speed means more ap...
Internet Addressing                      www.e-asia.org
What is an IP address?• The Internet Protocol  • Packets, addressing and routing  • Two types: IPv4 and IPv6• An IP addres...
IP Addresses vs Domain Names      The Internet                       DNS          202.112.0.46         www.company.bd?    ...
IP Addresses vs Domain NamesIP Address                               Domain NameNumeric                                  A...
IP Address Management                        www.e-asia.org
How are IP Addresses Managed? • Regional Internet address Registries    •   Open membership-based industry bodies    •   N...
Open Policy Processes                       Need                                  Anyone can participate                  ...
Regional Internet Registries                               www.e-asia.org
Internet Registry Structure                              www.e-asia.org
IP Address Status Report                           www.e-asia.org
On 3 February 2011, IANA runs out of IPv4 addressOn 15 April 2011, APNIC was down to its last /8 IPv4                     ...
IPv4 Consumption: Projection                           www.e-asia.org
The problem with IPv47 billion people + tens of billions devices on broadband access                             ?        ...
Possible solution: IPv4 NAT7 billion people + tens of billions devices on broadband accessPrivate IPv4 addresses          ...
Translation “cost”• Processing overhead  • Linux kernel NAT code    (http://lxr.linux.no/#linux+v3.1/net/ipv4/netfilter/nf...
and more devices coming!• Billions of devices and objects will be connected  to the Internet  • Always on, broadband conne...
IP Addresses: IPv4 vs IPv6IPv4                               IPv6Deployed 1981                      Deployed 199932-bit ad...
Working solution: IPv6 7 billion people + tens of billions devices on broadband access340 trillion trillion trillion IPv6 ...
A quick summary• IPv4 addresses are a finite resource  • Stock at IANA has been depleted• But the demand for IP addresses ...
IPv6 status              www.e-asia.org
IPv6 Allocations RIRs to LIRs/ISPs           How many allocations have been made by each RIR by year?                     ...
IPv6 deploymentIPv6 routes: 7,500   IPv4 routes: 380,000IPv6 ASNs: 4,800     IPv4 ASNs: 40,000                            ...
IPv6 Global Survey• http://www.nro.net/news/global-ipv6-survey-  results-2011• 1,600+ respondents from 135 economies• 53% ...
IPv6 Global Survey                     www.e-asia.org                                 31
Where are we now• IPv6 addresses are easy to obtain  • Policies are established and stable  • Minimal barriers to allocati...
The Future: IPv6                   www.e-asia.org
What we know…• The Internet needs IPv6!  • Imperative from 2012  • Deployment will take time and cost money  • Focus on co...
Government Responses• Promote IPv6  • To ISP and telco Industries  • Encourage IPv6 readiness if not deployment  • Opportu...
Conclusions…               www.e-asia.org
The IPv4 revolution• The 1990‟s – a new world of…  • Cheaper switching technologies  • Cheaper bandwidth  • Lower operatio...
An IPv6 revolution…• The 2010‟s – a new world of…   •   Commodity Internet service provision   •   Broadband, mobile, alwa...
Thank you!    SanjayaServices Directorsanjaya@apnic.net                    www.e-asia.org
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Last mile broadband and the case for i pv6 sanjaya

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  • Internet Registry StructureAn Internet registry is responsible for the management, allocation and registration of Internet number resources. This includes IPv4 and IPv6 addresses and autonomous system (AS) numbers.  Internet resources are distributed according to the hierarchical structure described in RFC 2050. IANA’s role is to allocate IP addresses from the remaining unallocated pool to the RIRs according to their needs as described by global policy. It is a loosely coherent structure, since IANA does not have jurisdiction over how these resources are redistributed after it has been allocated to the RIR. Distribution from the RIR downstream is based on its own policies developed in that region, and based on the members’ demonstrated need. APNIC allocates address space to its members and gives them authority to assign and allocate downstream. Members refer to local Internet registries (LIRs) and national Internet registries (NIRs). An LIR is generally an Internet service provider that may assign address space to its customers. NIRs operate on a national level to coordinate IP resource requirements. They are particular only in the Asia-Pacific region under the jurisdiction of APNIC. Some examples are APJII (Indonesia), CNNIC (China), JPNIC (Japan). KRNIC (Korea), SGNIC (Singapore), TWNIC (Taiwan), and VNNIC (Vietnam).
  • Internet Registry StructureAn Internet registry is responsible for the management, allocation and registration of Internet number resources. This includes IPv4 and IPv6 addresses and autonomous system (AS) numbers.  Internet resources are distributed according to the hierarchical structure described in RFC 2050. IANA’s role is to allocate IP addresses from the remaining unallocated pool to the RIRs according to their needs as described by global policy. It is a loosely coherent structure, since IANA does not have jurisdiction over how these resources are redistributed after it has been allocated to the RIR. Distribution from the RIR downstream is based on its own policies developed in that region, and based on the members’ demonstrated need. APNIC allocates address space to its members and gives them authority to assign and allocate downstream. Members refer to local Internet registries (LIRs) and national Internet registries (NIRs). An LIR is generally an Internet service provider that may assign address space to its customers. NIRs operate on a national level to coordinate IP resource requirements. They are particular only in the Asia-Pacific region under the jurisdiction of APNIC. Some examples are APJII (Indonesia), CNNIC (China), JPNIC (Japan). KRNIC (Korea), SGNIC (Singapore), TWNIC (Taiwan), and VNNIC (Vietnam).
  • Last mile broadband and the case for i pv6 sanjaya

    1. 1. Last mile broadband and the case for IPv6 e-ASIA 2011 Dhaka, 1-3 December 2011 Sanjaya, APNIC Services Director www.e-asia.org
    2. 2. Overview• Internet Evolution• Internet Addressing & Management• IP Address Status• The Next Step: IPv6• Conclusions www.e-asia.org
    3. 3. Internet Fundamentals• Open network, open standards • Developed within IETF system (RFC series) • TCP/IP, DNS, DHCP, HTTP, IPSEC, etc etc • “Dumb network” – global point-to-point datagram service• “IP over Everything” • Layered networking model (a la OSI) • Relying on ITU and IEEE standards • Serial line, Modem, Ethernet, ISDN, xDSL, cable/fibre, MPL S, 802.11x, Mobile 2G/3G… www.e-asia.org
    4. 4. Internet Fundamentals• Also platform for competition among ad hoc standards and innovations • Application protocols: VOIP, IM, VOD • Applications: search, social networking, ASPs • Often standardisation comes later• Product of deregulation over 15 years • Vertical disintegration • Content and commerce, services, ISPs, Telcos • Competition at all levels • Price and service competition • Horizontal aggregation and economies of scale • Great benefits to consumers www.e-asia.org
    5. 5. The “Narrow Waist” Phone/Fax/SMSApplications TV/VOD/conf “The Internet” Network Video Voice Data Fixed, Dialup/ISDNInfrastructure Mobile/2G Cable/ADSL www.e-asia.org
    6. 6. The “Narrow Waist” – Tomorrow Voice, email, IM Applications Video, TV, conf WWW+++ Network IP 802.11*/WiMax Mobile/3G Infrastructure Cable/*DSL FTTH, ETTH www.e-asia.org 6
    7. 7. Broadband and Mobile• Acceleration of Internet function and growth, simultaneously • Broadband: more speed means more applications • Mobile: more devices means more applications • More applications means more demand• Separation of services from infrastructure • Vertical disintegration • Greater innovation and competition• Multiple “always-on” services per user • Huge increase in IP address requirements… www.e-asia.org
    8. 8. Internet Addressing www.e-asia.org
    9. 9. What is an IP address?• The Internet Protocol • Packets, addressing and routing • Two types: IPv4 and IPv6• An IP address is a number • Every device directly connected to the Internet needs a unique IP address • IP address space is finite• Not the same as a Domain Name ! www.e-asia.org
    10. 10. IP Addresses vs Domain Names The Internet DNS 202.112.0.46 www.company.bd? 2001:0400:: 2001:0C00:8888:: My Computer 2001:0400:: www.company.bd www.e-asia.org
    11. 11. IP Addresses vs Domain NamesIP Address Domain NameNumeric Alphabetic202.12.29.20 www.cto.int2001:DB8:0234:AB00:0123:4567:8901:ABCD www.apnic.netComputer-friendly Human-friendlyRouter-friendlyLocator: Network end-point Label: Translates to IP AddressIntrinsic to the Internet Protocol Service running on IP (DNS)Managed regionally Managed globally (gTLD) Or nationally (ccTLD)Primarily technical management Primarily commercialpriorities management prioritiesCompetition provided by ISPs as Competition provided by“registrars” “Registry/Registrar” model www.e-asia.org
    12. 12. IP Address Management www.e-asia.org
    13. 13. How are IP Addresses Managed? • Regional Internet address Registries • Open membership-based industry bodies • Non-profit, neutral, and independent • Allocation, registration and other services • Training, infrastructure, cooperation • First established in early 1990s • Voluntarily by consensus of community • To ensure responsible address management, according to technical and administrative needs • To support Internet development • In the “Internet tradition” • Consensus-based, open, and transparent www.e-asia.org
    14. 14. Open Policy Processes Need Anyone can participate OPEN Evaluate Discuss BOTTOM UP TRANSPARENT Implement ConsensusInternet community All decisions & policies are proposes and documented & freely approves policy available to anyone www.e-asia.org
    15. 15. Regional Internet Registries www.e-asia.org
    16. 16. Internet Registry Structure www.e-asia.org
    17. 17. IP Address Status Report www.e-asia.org
    18. 18. On 3 February 2011, IANA runs out of IPv4 addressOn 15 April 2011, APNIC was down to its last /8 IPv4 IPv4 stock = 0 IPv4 stock = limited www.e-asia.org
    19. 19. IPv4 Consumption: Projection www.e-asia.org
    20. 20. The problem with IPv47 billion people + tens of billions devices on broadband access ? There are only 4 billion IPv4 addresses www.e-asia.org 20
    21. 21. Possible solution: IPv4 NAT7 billion people + tens of billions devices on broadband accessPrivate IPv4 addresses Private IPv4 addresses 4 billion IPv4 addresses Network Address Translation www.e-asia.org 21
    22. 22. Translation “cost”• Processing overhead • Linux kernel NAT code (http://lxr.linux.no/#linux+v3.1/net/ipv4/netfilter/nf_nat_core.c) • 700+ lines of code • NAT-PT (IPv4 to IPv6 translation) code • 600+ lines of code• Broadband makes things FASTER• Translation makes things SLOWER www.e-asia.org 22
    23. 23. and more devices coming!• Billions of devices and objects will be connected to the Internet • Always on, broadband connected • Multiple addresses per device www.e-asia.org
    24. 24. IP Addresses: IPv4 vs IPv6IPv4 IPv6Deployed 1981 Deployed 199932-bit address 128-bit address192.149.252.76 2001:DB8:0234:AB00:0123:4567:8901:ABCDAddress space Address space232 = ~4,000,000,000 2128 = ~340,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000Security, autoconfig, QoS, Security, autoconfig, QoSmobility added later (IPSec etc) “built-in” (IPSec etc)Projected lifetime: 2012 Projected lifetime: Indefinite www.e-asia.org
    25. 25. Working solution: IPv6 7 billion people + tens of billions devices on broadband access340 trillion trillion trillion IPv6 addresses is enough for everybody www.e-asia.org 25
    26. 26. A quick summary• IPv4 addresses are a finite resource • Stock at IANA has been depleted• But the demand for IP addresses will keep growing • More devices are requiring IP addresses • IP addresses are a pre-requisite for broadband penetration• The remaining space at the RIR level is not enough to support such demand• IPv6 is the only solution ! www.e-asia.org
    27. 27. IPv6 status www.e-asia.org
    28. 28. IPv6 Allocations RIRs to LIRs/ISPs How many allocations have been made by each RIR by year? Internet Number Resource Report www.e-asia.orgOct 2011
    29. 29. IPv6 deploymentIPv6 routes: 7,500 IPv4 routes: 380,000IPv6 ASNs: 4,800 IPv4 ASNs: 40,000 www.e-asia.org
    30. 30. IPv6 Global Survey• http://www.nro.net/news/global-ipv6-survey- results-2011• 1,600+ respondents from 135 economies• 53% ISP, 74% Commercial• 27% ISPs have not deployed IPv6• Those who have deployed are overwhelmingly running native IPv6, and dual-stack www.e-asia.org 30
    31. 31. IPv6 Global Survey www.e-asia.org 31
    32. 32. Where are we now• IPv6 addresses are easy to obtain • Policies are established and stable • Minimal barriers to allocations • No reservations, but supply is huge• IPv6 deployment strongly encouraged • Increasing promotion and awareness • Technical training and support• Readiness is increasing and deployment is picking up www.e-asia.org
    33. 33. The Future: IPv6 www.e-asia.org
    34. 34. What we know…• The Internet needs IPv6! • Imperative from 2012 • Deployment will take time and cost money • Focus on convincing key decision makers• A “Chicken and Egg” problem… • Content Provider waits for ISP • ISP waits for vendors and Content Providers • World IPv6 day in June 2010 to break the deadlock. Proof that IPv6 „works‟.• Transition will be a long process • But needs to be underway right now www.e-asia.org
    35. 35. Government Responses• Promote IPv6 • To ISP and telco Industries • Encourage IPv6 readiness if not deployment • Opportunity to “leapfrog” to latest technology• Specify IPv6 • Government equipment procurement • Network servers and services • Public infrastructure deployments• Require IPv6 • To the extent possible www.e-asia.org
    36. 36. Conclusions… www.e-asia.org
    37. 37. The IPv4 revolution• The 1990‟s – a new world of… • Cheaper switching technologies • Cheaper bandwidth • Lower operational costs • The PC revolution, funded by users• The Internet boom • The dumb (and cheap) network • Technical and business innovation at the edges • Many compelling business cases for new services and innovation www.e-asia.org
    38. 38. An IPv6 revolution…• The 2010‟s – a new world of… • Commodity Internet service provision • Broadband, mobile, always-on • Massive reduction in cost of consumer electronics • A network-ready society• An IPv6 boom? • Ubiquitous pervasive networking • Bringing online the “Next 4 Billion” • Plus a device population some 2–3 orders of magnitude larger than today‟s Internet • “Internet for Everything”• Let‟s get ready for IPv6 ! www.e-asia.org
    39. 39. Thank you! SanjayaServices Directorsanjaya@apnic.net www.e-asia.org

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