Ke goa 2013 role of research-based education in strengthening knowledge society - prof s satyanarayana, vice chancellor, osmania...
THE ROLE OF RESEARCH-BASED
EDUCATION IN STRENGTHENING
Prof. S. Satyanarayana
Vice-Chancellor, Osmania University
• Research and Innovation fuels the progress of
society through knowledge economy.
• Knowledge generated by research innovation is
the basis of sustainable social development.
• While Research in Industry would be applied in
nature, Research in Universities and other
Educational Institutions traditionally focuses on
• Throughout the world, there is a tendency to
encourage research based education in
strengthening knowledge society. This paper
exclusively focuses on this significant issue.
• That the research based education alone can help us in
the strengthening of knowledge society is beyond
• India’s prestigious interplanetary mission to Mars
precisely proves this point. This was the first crucial but
difficult step in ISRO’s Mars Orbiter Mission.
• However, the XL version of the PSLV achieved it in a
great way. There is an argument that spending of
Rs.460 crores on the Mars Orbiter project is a waste of
money. But it is not correct.
• The country’s 50 year space programme has always
been society-centric and science-centric. India has so
far built satellites for communication, remote sensing,
forecasting weather and navigation.
• All these are of immense benefit to decisionmakers and people at the ground level. Every
rupee spent on the space programme is of
“direct benefit to people.”
• Thousands of lives were saved recently when
INSATs beamed pictures of the approaching
Phailin cyclone and Indian Meteorological
department used them to warn people and they
were evacuated to safer places.
• The most important of such benefits could well
be to fire the imagination of young minds in this
country and getting them to dream about
possibilities of tomorrow. The research based
education, therefore, plays a pivotal role in
strengthening the knowledge society.
• No society, region or nation prospers without good
Academic institutions should think
strategically and start research and innovation centres
on their campus and become deserving to provide
world class education in cutting edge technology to
• Higher Education with research and innovation alone
can move a nation forward. Thomas Jefferson, the
first US President said that if America wanted to be a
leader in the world it must first succeed to lead in
• So also the Bush Commission report in 1945 places on
record that “Research should be the main product of
Universities and education as bye-product.”
• Metaphorically speaking, research and
education are like two ends of a bow. The
arrow does not move forward unless the two
ends of the bow are tightly tied together by a
• Neither end has a force without the support
of other. And institutions binds two ends
together namely education and research to
provide quality education.
• The moral and ethical issues too form an
integral part of dedicated research.
• Research is financially very much rewarding than
normally imagined. As we all know, Faraday
demonstrated his discovery of Electromagnetic
Induction on which the dynamo depends.
• The then Prime Minister of UK asked about the
uses of the discovery and Faraday replied that
the use is as great and significant as a new born
• Later Margaret Thatcher admitted that Faraday’s
invention had generated more wealth than the
entire capital represented by London Stock
• In advanced countries, educational institutions
concentrate more on research. The Government and
industry in those countries work together to forecast
the manpower needs and allot funds to create the right
kind of graduates.
• When US President John F. Kennedy announced that
America would send men to the moon and bring back
safely in the next 10 years, immediately American
Government allocated funds to NASA and also selected
Universities and due to this series of scientific
advancement that led to the space voyage to the moon
• Even now we find “Samanvaya”, a wholesome
integration and harmony, between the educational
research and its role in creating knowledge society.
• That is why, GPS was invented in Cambridge University;
birth of Genetic Engineering took place in Stanford
University; discovery of DNA was done in Cambridge;
Apple Computer Company was born in MIT, Boston;
Microsoft was born in Harvard. Stanford University has
played a key role in promoting IT cluster.
• Research Foundations on the lines of Universities in
USA like Pennsylvania, IOWA, Washington, Florida and
Georgia Universities have to be established.
• University Research Foundation is an autonomous, nonprofit educational corporation that administers
externally funded contracts, donations, endowments
and grants for and on behalf of the University.
• Its establishment helps in attracting the funds from
various trusts, donations from alumni of the
University and other governmental organizations.
• It will facilitate research, education, training, business
and public service at an accelerated level to tap the
experienced and young talent of innovative minds in
creating knowledge society.
• The proposed Research foundation would have
Technology Incubatory Division, Intellectual Property
Assistance & Patent Facilitation Services and would
monitor the Research Fund Allocations to Innovation
Maintenance, Collaborations, Research Business
Promotion and IPR and Patent facilitation.
• Further it is possible to carry out high-end applied
research and synergizes the research capabilities
students, faculty, scientists and industrial work
• Promotion of innovation research clusters
intended for quality research and scholarly works
would forge links and stimulate cooperation
between companies, research, higher education
institutions and ultimately it leads to the
development of MSMEs, which will drive
economic growth and job creation.
• The sum total of all this is creation and
strengthening of Knowledge Society.
• The measurable outcome of this research
activity mainly benefits in creating
• Cutting edge research facilities and
consultancy options for faculty, continuing
education programs with new processes and
products for industry, sponsored research
and shared IP gains for Institute and finally
commercialize research and attracting the
industry to university campus providing
impetus to knowledge society.
• This paper covers :
– Experiences of Other countries in respect of
Technology transfer from Educational Institutions
– Overview of Indian Policy Approaches
– Observations of European Commission in respect
of University and Industry
– Experiences of IIT Bombay
– Establishment of Research Foundation at
– Proposed working of Research Foundation
• Experiences of Other Countries – an Overview:
• In the developed and other countries, a range of
initiatives have been set up for an effective
Technology transfer and commercialization of
scientific research results. US Government has
issued many policy directives to improve
technology transfer from academic institutions.
• Primary among them being :
– Bayh-Dole Act (Patent and Trademark Amendments,
– National Cooperative Research Act 1984 and
– Federal Technology Transfer (TT) Act 1996
• Apart from such regulatory support, key
factors identified for successful TT at US
– Basic environment – excellent technical
manpower and IP culture, fair incentive system
for inventors and research and development
– Organization and process – trained TT personnel
and active patent policy and simplified processes
– Ambient environment – academic- industrial
network, vivid venture atmosphere, technology
• The Bayh—Dole Act transferred the rights of IP
generated under government grants from the
funding agencies to the universities, thus
opportunities to independently exploit the
research results, commercially.
• USA created an institutional set up for the
university – industry (UI) interaction by
establishing University- Industry Cooperative
Research Centres to boost collaborative research
between academic institutions and industry
leading the path for academic knowledge
• European countries too formed a large
number of UI setups such as TT
offices, science parks, and university based
incubators towards facilitating transfer of
academic knowledge to the industry and
society (Guena A Muscio A 2008).
• Studies have shown that proactive initiatives
have been taken by the government
authorities in UK, France, Japan, Germany
and USA towards facilitating TT and diffusion
from academic institutions ( Liu H and Jiang Y
2001 and Moore JH 1988 quoted in
• On the Asian front, the Governments of
Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan have initiated
creation of infrastructure for TT. Technology park is
one such initiative developed by linked
universities, government institutions and companies
both small and large (Gwynne P 1993).
• A study found that TT offices helped universities
expand their patenting and licensing activities
(Thursby and Thursby 2002).
• Liu and Jiang identified three important factors that
affect technology development and transfer in China:
economic system determined by government policies;
autonomy and benefits to researchers, and industry
networks (Liu H and Jiang Y 2001).
• As a matter of fact, Indian Professors have
contributed immensely to USA Universities. Sadly,
they are not able to contribute to Indian society as
systems and procedures are obstructing their
• The colleges abroad are innovative in character
whereas ours is conservative. They teach sunrise
technologies, we teach sunset; they produce leaders,
we produce followers; they lead a change, we follow
change; they are engines of growth, we remain
bogies. Invention when exploited commercially is
known as innovation.
• The competency of people is measured today in
terms of their ability to innovate. Innovation and
creativity is today’s Gurumantra. Japan produces 28
PhDs per million, USA 30 and India only 0.45.
• MIT, Boston is a private research University
which obtains 100 patents every year. It
gives birth to 30-40 new technology firms.
Around 4000 companies owe their origin to
MIT. 20% of the yearly budget of the
institute is met out of sale of patents.
• The institute has created employment of high
income for millions. All Universities in USA
taken together obtain 1000 per year and
Indian Universities earn less than 100 patents
• European Commission Report on Benefits of Research
foundation in European Institutions :
• Examination of successful research collaborations in
Europe and the USA show that sustainable ‘win-win’
arrangements can be obtained which produce good
science, publish results without unreasonable delay,
contribute to the general education and training of
new graduates and generate valuable intellectual
property that supports innovation by industrial
• When managed in a professional and balanced way,
knowledge transfer can be beneficial both for the
research institutions concerned and society in
general. Benefits to Research Institutions and to the
society can be summed up as follows:
• Benefits to research institutions
• Resulting from knowledge transfer to Industry
are not – and should not be expected to be primarily financial, even though any revenues
resulting from knowledge transfer can help
fund additional R&D activities, in addition to
the knowledge transfer activities themselves.
Instead, the main benefits are indirect and
should be considered in the long term.
• They include:
– The develop mutual trust between research
institution and Industry
– The enhancement of research activities in research
– Gaining status and prestige resulting from successful
– Involvement of Industry based lecturers, enrichment
of teaching contents
– Identification of Potential new clients or partners for
– Attracting, retaining and motivating good scientists
interested in entrepreneurial aspects
– Contributing to public authorities and recognizing
the socio-economic relevance of publicly funded
research helps to increased funding thereof
• These benefits will have further positive
consequences, such as facilitating exchanges of
staff between the research institution and the
industry, or the hiring of new graduates from
the research institution by industry.
• Benefits to the Society:
• The successful implementation of policies to
deal with inventions and collaboration with
industry can lead to number of benefits for
society at large and in particular, local economy.
• These benefits include new jobs, new products
on the market and better education. Industries
support several activities through corporate
social responsibility (CSR).
• Overview of Indian Policy Approaches:
• Responding to the globalized knowledge economy, Indian
policy makers have started several measures to create an
innovation driven economy.
• This includes augmenting scientific institutions towards
commercialization of its scientific research where feasible
in order to create long lasting traditional values such as
jobs and wealth and become knowledge superpower
(Arumugham V and Jain K 2010).
• The Government of has formulated three science policies
since 1947: Scientific Policy Resolution in 1958, The
Technology Policy Statement in 1983 and the Science and
Technology Policy in 2003 to strengthen S&T in the
country (dst.gov 2011).
• The summary of these three policies is presented in Table
Table I – Main focus of science policies in India
(Source: Arumugham & Jain – Technology Transfer – Journal of IPR Vol
17, March 2012)
Establishment of Higher Technical
academic institutes with focus on
Technical human resources
Technology Policy Emphasize on R&D towards Import
Create a national innovation
Technology Policy system, support Setting Technology
Transfer offices in Universities
Encourage investment by Industry
in Education and R&D
• In 2009, the Indian Government formally
permitted opening up technology incubation
centres as a new means of Technology Transfers.
• Leading academic and research institutions in
India such as IITs, IIS and the CSIR laboratories
have taken the lead and established incubation
centres (DST Report 2009).
• It should be extended to Universities as well.
• In India as on 2009, 15 Science and Technology
entrepreneur parks exist, nurturing 788 entities
• Thus employment to 5,000 aspirants with an
annual turnover of Rs. 130 crores has become
Utilizing Policy Initiatives:
Technology Transfer from IIT Mumbai
• The Technology transfer process in IIT Mumbai has
evolved over a long period.
• This system at IIT Mumbai identified fundamental
pre-requisites for a successful academic TT system
– Basic environment
– Organization and process and
– Ambient environment
• IIT Mumbai successfully implemented this strategy.
• A comparative picture is given about the Technology
Transfer Output during 2000-01 to 2010-11 as a result
of establishment of TT system in Table - II.
Table-II : TT Output during 2000-01 to 2010-11
Number of IP
(patents/designs) Filed in India
Number of IP commercialized
Licence money generated
Consultancy receipts from
Industry (in Rs. Lakhs)
Revenue intensity index
(licence Money + consultancy
receipts (in Rs Lakhs)/No of
Source: Arumugham & Jain – TT – A case study of IIT Mumbai – JIPR Vol 17, March 2012
• Having examined the experience of IIT Mumbai,
one need to think, how it can be replicated in
traditional Universities where the financial
support would be far lesser than that of IITs and
input of students is totally different.
• New Company law stipulates that the
Companies should spend at least 2 percent of
their profits on Corporate Social Responsibilities
• Dynamic Universities can take leverage of this
stipulation in building industry university
network and obtain funds from them for joint
Establishment of Research Foundation at
Traditional Universities – a Proposal:
• The proposed University Research Foundation (URF)
will be an autonomous, non-profit educational
corporation that administers
externally funded contracts
• URF facilitates research, education, training, business
and public service to unravel the latent talent of
innovative minds in the university environment
through institute-industry interaction.
• Aims of University Research Foundation (URF)
– To attract the funds from various trusts, donations from alumni of
the University and other governmental organizations
– facilitate research, education, training, business and public
service at an accelerated level
– tap the experienced and young talent of innovative minds in the
University environment through institute-industry interaction
– facilitates establishment of Technology Incubatory Division,
Intellectual Property Assistance & Patent Facilitation Services and
would monitor the Research Fund Allocations to Innovation
Projects, Research Fellowships, Equipment Maintenance,
Collaborations, Research Business Promotion
• No society, region or nation prospers without quality research.
Academic institutions should think strategically and start research
and innovation centres on their campus
• Metaphorically speaking, research and education are like two ends of
• Why Research Foundation?
• To have strong commitment to hire research
• To enhance the scientific fervour among faculty
• To develop an aptitude to be in fore-front of
• To elicit industry support for research
contracts, agreements and awards
Objectives of Research Foundation
To provide consultancy services
To take up contract research for industry
To invite industrial scientists to work in laboratory
To leverage the partnership between institute and industry
To send graduate students to work and train in industry
To create in house facilities for small entrepreneurs to grow
To promote creativity in innovative product development
To facilitate promotion of emerging technologies and
launching of new companies in collaboration with
• To transform the skills and competency into a resource
• Research Foundation is expected to have an
Incubator Division with the following objectives
– To generate additional revenue stream and new
sources of funds through contract research and
– To develop cluster of small business enterprise
– To provide space to industry for R & D activities and
start-up facility on lease
– To enhance training and employment opportunities
– To cultivate applied research in promoting industrial
innovation and new technologies
• The proposed Research foundation would have :
– Technology Incubatory Division
– Intellectual Property Assistance & Patent Facilitation Services
– Monitor the Research Fund Allocations to
• Innovation Projects
• Research Fellowships
• Equipment Maintenance
• Research Business Promotion and IPR and
• Patent facilitation
• This model is expected to work on the lines of Technology
Transfer process system established in IIT Mumbai.
• The proposed Research foundation would have Technology
Incubatory Division, Intellectual Property Assistance &
Patent Facilitation Services and would monitor the Research
Fund Allocations to Innovation Projects, Research
Maintenance, Collaborations, Research Business Promotion
and IPR and Patent facilitation. This model is expected to
work on the lines of Technology Transfer process system
established in IIT Mumbai.
• Prof. Terman of Stanford University said “Industry to be
globally competitive needs access to first class research in
Universities.” So also, first class research in Universities
needs access to industry for its commercial exploitation.
• This led to the creation of technopreneurs in
Silicon Valley. Germany has also maintained its
leadership by research, patenting and
• The model is being used all over the world.
Therefore, India to be globally competitive must
have to integrate research with education and
• It could be fundamental research as the search
for God’s particle or applied research, as in
development of fuel efficient vehicles or
development of alternate source of energy.
• If colleges and Universities do not create centres
of research and innovation then there is no
hope for growth.
• Quality of education can be transformed to
world class standard only by introducing
research in colleges. Colleges will then become
“Light House” for industry. Private industry
should also have to come forward and join
hands with academics.
• The task is too big for Government alone.
Research is not a futile exercise. It is high
time, academic institutions realised the fact that
endowments, name and fame.
• The bottom line is, if India does not create
research based Universities and Colleges, we
will have only mediocre graduates far too low
by international standards to run its national
and international affairs.
• Against this discussion and background, it is
obvious that Research based education is the
key to strengthening of India’s Knowledge