KE Goa 2013 - Role of Research-based Education in Strengthening Knowledge Society - Dr W N Gade, Vice Chancellor, Pune University...
Essentiality of Research in
Enhancing the Quality of Higher
Education in India
Prof. W. N. Gade
University of pune
Education is the basis of National
Development – economical, social,
political, industrial, cultural, all types
It is a really unfortunate that the quality
of education and particularly higher
education is quite poor in our country
We have :
Over 600 Universities
About 35,000 colleges
About 13 million students
But still our GER is only about 18%
Higher education is becoming a major driver
of economic competitiveness in an
increasingly knowledge driven global
But the employability potential of our
graduates and post graduates is very poor
Definition of Research
Research and experimental development
comprise creative work undertaken on a
systematic basis in order to increase the stock
of knowledge, including the knowledge of man,
culture and society, and use this stock of
knowledge to devise new applications
TECHNOLOGICAL/SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS of INDIA
- The technique of algorithm used in computer science today.
- The science of algebra. (Indian's invented, Arabs took it when they invaded, and gave it to
the then "primitive" Europeans)
- The concept of zero - on which ultimately rests the binary code which has given us all
software including the WWW
- The technique of manufacturing crystal (sugar)cane sugar (the word sugar is derived from
the Sanskrit term "Sharkara").
- The making of camphor (MODERN chemists know how important this chemical is).
- The making of tin (the technical English word for tin is Cassiterite which is said to have been
derived from the Sanskrit term "Kasthira").
-Kung Fu is a derivation of Yoga---taught to the Chinese by an Indian Bhuddist Monk known
as Bodidharma (ask any Kung Fu Grand Master, or check the internet for yourself).
-The earliest recorded use of copperware in India has been around 3000 B.C. the findings at
Mohen-jo-daro and Harappa, bear this out The earliest documented observation of smelting
of metals in India is by Greek Historians in the 4th Century B.C.
Sanskrit is the mother of all the European languages.
Sanskrit is the most suitable language for computer
software reported in Forbes magazine, July 1987.
The World's first university was established in Takshila in 700BC.
more than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more
than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century
BC was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the
field of education.
Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans.
Charaka, the father of medicine consolidated Ayurveda 2500
years ago. Today Ayurveda is fast regaining its rightful place in
ARYABHATTA (476 CE)
MASTER ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN
Aryabhatta was the first to
proclaim that the earth is
round, it rotates on its axis,
orbits the sun and is
suspended in space - 1000
years before Copernicus
published his heliocentric
He is also acknowledged for
calculating p (Pi) to four
decimal places: 3.1416
His most spectacular
contribution was the
concept of zero without
which modern computer
technology would have
BHASKARACHARYA II (1114-1183 CE)
GENIUS IN ALGEBRA
Born in the obscure village of
Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra,
Bhaskaracharya's work in
Algebra, Arithmetic and Geometry
catapulted him to fame and
NAGARJUNA (100 CE)
WIZARD OF CHEMICAL SCIENCE
His dedicated research for twelve years
produced maiden discoveries and
inventions in the faculties of chemistry
ACHARYA BHARADWAJA (800 BCE)
PIONEER OF AVIATION TECHNOLOGY
He authored the "Yantra Sarvasva" which
includes astonishing and outstanding
discoveries in aviation science, space science
and flying machines.
ACHARYA PATANJALI (200 BCE)
FATHER OF YOGA
The Science of Yoga is one of several
unique contributions of India to the
world. It seeks to discover and realize
the ultimate Reality through yogic
Indian scientists have played a stellar role in the
development of India. In the short span of its postindependence history India has achieved several
great scientific achievements. Indian scientists have
proved their mettle in the face of international
sanctions and have made India one of the scientific
powerhouses of the world.
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
C.V. Raman is one of the most renowned scientists produced by India.
In 1930, Sir C.V. Raman was awarded with Nobel Prize in Physics for his
work on scattering of light.
The discovery was later christened as "Raman Effect".
He retired from the Indian Institute of Science in 1948 and a year later he
established the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore.
Dr. Homi Jehnagir Bhabha
Homi Jehnagir Bhabha, was a famous Indian atomic scientist.
In Independent India, Homi Jehnagir Bhabha, with the support of
Jawaharlal Nehru, laid the foundation of a scientific establishment and was
responsible for the creation of two premier institutions, Tata Institute of
Fundamental Research and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.
Homi Bhabha was the first chairman of India's Atomic Energy
Dr. Satyendra Nath Bose
Satyendra Nath Bose was an outstanding Indian physicist. He is known
for his work in Quantum Physics.
He is famous for "Bose-Einstein Theory" and a kind of particle in atom
has been named after his name as Boson.
Satyendra Nath Bose was honored with 'Padmabhusan' by the Indian
Government in recognition of his outstanding achievement.
Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya
Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya was an eminent engineer and
statesman and played a key role in building of modern India.
Architect of Krishnarajasagar Dam; devised steel doors to stop the wasteful
flow of water in dams; honored with Bharat Ratna.
Dr. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was one of
the greatest scientists of the 20th century.
He did commendable work in astrophysics,
physics and applied mathematics.
Chandrasekhar was awarded the Nobel
Prize in Physics in 1983.
Dr. Srinivasa Ramanujan
Srinivasa Ramanujan was a mathematician
He is widely believed to be the greatest
mathematician of the 20th Century.
Srinivasa Ramanujan made significant
contribution to the analytical theory of numbers
and worked on elliptic functions, continued
fractions, and infinite series.
A noted scientist of India, Dr Shanti Swaroop Dr. Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar
Bhatnagar was appointed the first directorgeneral of the prestigious Council of Scientific
and Industrial Research.
He also hold the credit of building 12 national
laboratories like Central Food Processing
Technological Institute at Mysore, National
Chemical Laboratory at Pune and so on.
Dr. G. N. Ramachandran
Gopalasamudram Narayana Iyer Ramachandran, popularly referred to as
G. N. Ramachandran is one of the best scientists that 20th century India had
The best known work of G. N. Ramachandran till date is the Ramachandran
plot, which the scientist had conceived along with Viswanathan Sasisekharan,
to understand the structure of peptides.
G. N. Ramachandran was the first scientist to suggest a triple-helical model
of collagen structure. G. N. Ramachandran also made important contributions
in the field of biology in the length of his career as a scientist.
Dr. Vikram Sarabhai
Vikram Sarabhai was one of the greatest scientists of India.
He is considered as the Father of the Indian space program.
Apart from being a scientist, he was a rare combination of an innovator, industrialist
Dr. Vikram Sarabhai was awarded with Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Medal in
1962 and Padma Bhushan in 1966.
This was mostly done in Universities
Why not now?
Reasons for declining research quality in Universities
Large number of Affiliated colleges
Large number of students
Teaching has become the primary responsibility
Teaching has become mechanical exercise
Lack of research culture in colleges and many
Lack of passion for research & teaching
Lack of research infrastructure
High quality research is not a pre-requisite for
appointments or promotions
Current Status of Research in India
R & D spending :
Less than 1% of GDP (increased from 16,200 crores in
2001 to 37,800 crores in 2008 i.e. 0.9%)
It was expected to be about 2%
In China : increased from 0.9% in 2000 to 1.4% in 2006
Researchers per million of Population
Iceland - 6807
The changing trends in number and global share of scientific
publications from SCI data base
It is evident from trends presented in Figure 1a and 1b that India has started to regain
the volume share of scientific publications lost during 1980’s since 2002. The present
global share of scientific publications is about 3.5%. Based on relative share, India
ranks currently 9th in the world with respect to scientific publications in SCI journals.
Based on the current trends, India could vie for a share of about 5% within the next
five years. This would call for planned investments and concerted actions from all the
Comparisons of Indian performance with respect to SCI
publications with respect to some developed countries
(Australia, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, UK and
USA) in global share
Comparison of Citation impacts of Indian
publications with some developed economies
India has improved its position in the world's definitive university rankings
with five Indian varsities entering the top 400 list, up from three in 2012
Panjab University made its debut in the Times Higher Education World
University Rankings 2013-14 in the 226-250 band followed by two other new
entrants - Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi and Kanpur in the 351400 band. The new entrants join IIT Kharagpur, which slipped from 226-250
into the 351-400 group, and IIT Roorkee, which retained its place in the 351400 band.
"These results should be encouraging for India: while no Indian institution
makes the top 200...India now has five representatives in the top 400 a sign
of growing commitment to the global rankings," said Phil Baty, editor of the
Times Higher Education World University Rankings. "The drive in India to
share more data and to compare its institutions against the trusted,
established and rigorous standards set by the Times Higher Education World
University Rankings is a great step to improved quality," he added.
Importance of Research In Enhancing The Teaching Quality
Teaching can be research led :
Curriculum is structured around the subject content
Content selected is based on the research interest and the expertise of the
Teaching should be research oriented – curriculum should emphasize on
understanding the processes by which knowledge is produced
Priority has to be given to the teaching of inquiry skills and on acquiring
Project work becomes very important
Hence the research experience of teacher plays an important role
Teaching can be research based in the sense that curriculum is designed
around inquiry based activities, rather than acquisition of subject knowledge
Teaching can be research – informed in the sense that it draws consciously
on systematic inquiry into teaching and learning processes itself
Research based academic studies are the promoter of higher order learning
outcomes (initial thinking) and transferable research related capabilities
expected of higher education
Students need to acquire the ability of problem solving, critical thinking and
analysis based learning so as to enhance their employability potential
According to Fisher (2003), key function of education is to teach students to
think critically, creatively and effectively
It is precisely the capacity to think which enables students to acquire new
knowledge and it teaches to recognise the value of gaining knowledge.
Need for a Scientific Thinking
Scientific thinking is self – directed, self – disciplined, self monitored and
self – corrective. It presupposes assent to rigorous standards of
excellence and mindful command of their use.
It entails effective communication and problem solving abilities as well
as commitments to developments of scientific skills, abilities and
Research culture will inculcate scientific thinking
Albert Einstein said: We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us
how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery
could have been made.
of the advances in the sciences
that we consider today to have been made in Europe
were in fact made in India centuries ago."
- Grant Duff
British Historian of India
There are 3.22 Million Indians in America. 38% of Doctors in
America are Indians. 12% of Scientists in America are Indians.
36% of NASA employees are Indians. 34% of MICROSOFT
employees are Indians 28% of IBM employees are Indians
17% of INTEL employees are Indians 13% of XEROX
employees are Indians
A long way to go…
Strengthening science education at all levels is an
enabling requirement, especially for
developing nations, for a self-standing national
Steps to Improve the Research Output
Restore the glory of teacher & teaching profession
Introduce choice based credit system at UG & PG level
Assess academic institutions and teachers on the basis of research
Strengthen research infrastructure in colleges and universities
Provide more fellowships and grants for research in state Universities
Implement RUSA in every state
Universities should not become factories for producing Ph.D.s
Positive initiatives of Govt of India
UPE Programme of UGC Grant Commission
PURSE Programme of DST
INSPIRE Programme of DST
Faculty Recharge Programme of UGC
Star College Programme of DBT
RUSA of Ministry of Human Resource
Various Research Fellowships launched by Govt
Practices in Pune University
Formulated Research Policy
Formulated policy on plagiarism
QIP program for colleges and University Departments
CIF in colleges and University Departments
National Fellowships for research scholars
Department Research grants etc