Charru Malhotra


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Presentation given by Charru Malhotra, Assistant Professor (Systems Analysis cum Programming), Indian Institute of Public Administration (IIPA) on August 1st, 2011 at eWorld Forum ( in the session Sharing Good Practices in eGovernance

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Charru Malhotra

  1. 1. Effective Implementation of e-Govt using PPP or 5P ? Multistakeholder Synergy for e-Govt.: A Case Study of Akshaya centres in Ernakulum & Mallapuram Districts of Kerala Dr. Charru Malhotra Indian Institute of Public Administration Dr. V.M. Chariar, IIT-D, New-Delhi Prof. L.K. Das, IIT-D, New-Delhi eWorld Forum 2011:Aug 1-3, 2011 Centre for Science Development and Media Studies (CSDMS) and ELETS Technomedia Private Limited.
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Aim of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Main Learnings </li></ul><ul><li>Main Contribution: Evaluate and Validate Citizen-Centric </li></ul><ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Concluding Remarks </li></ul><ul><li>Glimpses : Some Photographs of Field Studies </li></ul>
  3. 3. Aim of the Study <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The broad aim of the study has been </li></ul><ul><li>To study an existing ICT/e-Govt initiative in Rural India. </li></ul><ul><li>and then </li></ul><ul><li>2.To evolve a citizen-centric approach for designing e-governance for rural India . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Research Questions     1: Is the collaboration of various stakeholders critical for success of rural e-Governance initiatives?   2: Does citizen participation in design of rural e-Governance initiative necessary to increase its perceived usefulness?  
  5. 5. Methodology Detailed Study of Akshaya Centres <ul><li>Qualitative field research using </li></ul><ul><li>observation </li></ul><ul><li>focus group discussions, </li></ul><ul><li>semi-structured interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Akshaya Centres (ACs) visited = 9 . </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction with Kiosk visitors per AC (avg) = 8 (of which 4 / AC gave complete responses) </li></ul><ul><li>Total Villagers = 53 ( of which 47 gave valid complete responses.) </li></ul><ul><li>Village Level Entrepreneurs = 9 </li></ul><ul><li>NIC project designers = 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Officials from Kerala State IT Mission = 3 </li></ul><ul><li>District collectorates = 2 (one each of the respective districts). </li></ul><ul><li>Panchayat members = 7 & Panchayat heads = 5 </li></ul><ul><li>K udumbashree volunteers = 12 ( 3 of them acted as facilitators) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Summary of Findings <ul><li>1. Citizens Needs/Expectations not addressed adequately: </li></ul><ul><li>Limited variety/scope of services (only ancillary services/ e-literacy provided) </li></ul><ul><li>No continuity between 1 st and 2 nd Phases of Akshaya Centres </li></ul><ul><li>A lack of community perspective (e.g. iKisan was not popular). </li></ul><ul><li>2. Absence of Contextualisation: </li></ul><ul><li>I nfrastructure provisions at Akshaya panchayats were minimum preferred. </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical diversity of the state not properly addressed in the design. </li></ul><ul><li>ReGI needs to address micro-level context. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Stakeholder Involvement: Conducive Social Dynamics provided by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Panchayat Bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s Self Help Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commited VLEs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literate citizens: Being 100% literate State, e-literacy could spread AC- awareness easily in the villagers </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Gaps exist between the design & reality of e-governance (Dada, 2006) E-gov is more technology centric than focused on the context ( Wilson, 2003) Prevalent technology models are limited in their responses to rural realities (McMaster & Wastell, 2005). Existing Scenario of e-Governance Implementation in Rural Areas Figure 6.1 Existing Approach to Design of ICT Initiatives Applied for Rural Governance
  8. 8. Summarised Finding At present: The citizen being treated as a ‘passive recipient’ of e-Govt. Services. Even if a Rural e-Govt. Initiative (ReGI) does get a ccepted initially but This initial euphoria cannot be sustained if lack of citizens’ focus
  9. 9. <ul><li>Design “for” the citizens : Community perspective required to address adequately the needs/ expectations of rural citizens </li></ul>Reflect Context: ReGI must respond to contextual factors of grassroots Stakeholders C ollaboration is a must : Multi-stakeholder synergy model for conducive social dynamics. Main Learning 2. Design “with citizens” : Citizens are capable and must be involved in the design of ReGI
  10. 10.
  11. 11. <ul><li>‘ Gram Samitis’ proposed with four major stakeholders : </li></ul><ul><li>Public organizations: Service delivery Govt. deptts and designing agencies as NIC. </li></ul><ul><li>Pvt. companies/NGOs: Implementing agencies or service/infrastructure providers. </li></ul><ul><li>Panchayats: for local capacity building/awareness/monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>People: SHGs/VLEs/Unions/Elders: To increase the variety/scope of services and to correctly project the point of view of the rural citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be achieved by: Interactive e-Governance portal with C2G interface, mobile/community-radio, Community of Practice-COP (Hara, 2009),regional variation of ‘Citizen Consultation Workshop’ could help rural citizens to collaborate and communicate. </li></ul>Multi-stakeholder Synergy
  12. 12. Concluding Remarks <ul><li>The need for such a multistakeholder synergy becomes more relevant for rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>The local context of rural areas varies from region to region </li></ul><ul><li>Local populace (and their representatives) are best informed about grassroot realities, resource potentialities & indigenous governance practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore such an inclusive representation would help: </li></ul><ul><li>to draw upon the knowledge of stakeholders from diverse regional contexts in which the communities reside and thereby, </li></ul><ul><li>provide the social equity component and local wisdom to the rural e-governance initiative being implemented that are indispensable to the complexities that exist in rural India. </li></ul>
  13. 13. SOME GLIMPSES INTO STUDY-TOUR Ernakulum & Mallapuram Districts of Kerala
  14. 14. With VLEs, NIC Officials , Villagers, KeralaState IT Mission Officials
  15. 15.
  16. 16. With Visitors to AkshayaCentres, Village Elders Women SHG, & Youth
  17. 17. Thank You