Challenges Facing Metadata Services


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The changing nature of scholarly resources, knowledge access, rising expectations of end users and public services staff asked us to revisit opportunities for academic libraries as gateways, archives, place, buyers, universal digital library infrastructure, etc.

If we say that each media type requires new devices, equipment, computing power and others to create, process, manage, publish, and display its content, then the increasingly digital nature of library resources demand similar capability.

In the presentation, the answer to meet these challenges facing metadata services lie in 1) treating info as product; 2) providing support for a well-established, ubiquitous, pervasive, reliable, configurable, robust, and public accessible information infrastructure and computing environment, which integrate people, organizations, processes, data, information, and technologies in such a coherent manner that the objectives of a digital library can be performed, measured and controlled at the lowest meaningful and atomic level; 3) providing support for relevant, engaged, and customized information contents and services, which cover all resources, all vocabularies, and all languages to any given user at any time with critical mass in compliance with control objectives and process maturity measures for info systems and enterprise architecture defined by COBIT 5.0, TOGAF 9.0, and leveraged by library-specific IT industry; and 4) empowering the whole brain team using leadership, communication skills, project management, analytical skills, collaboration, and teamwork.

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  • Logo of Univ. of Maryland is from “Transforming Maryland: Higher Expectation.” Retrieved from
  • Note: Explanation: This figure is under the inspiration of “Figure 2.1: Information Needs at Different Levels of ICT Penetration in Educational Systems,” part of World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report 2010, p.32,, I believe libraries as information service providers should leverage the best-practice set by ITU and peer-institution libraries, and create value-added services tailored to individual user-community of MTSU. This is just an example of D-Lib Research Penetration Roadmap that defines the info needs for D-Lib research maturity level and process requirement for penetrating D-Lib Research into D2L and social media sites. If we can reach the ultimate level (a.k.a. producing life-time learners trained to be good persons, team players, etc. and knowing how to learn in the discipline of their specialty), and if we can also make sure the process for training such life-time learners are participatory, traceable, transparent, and repeatable in compliance to regulations and guidelines, every family would send their children to MTSU via physical or virtual campus by word of mouth, recommendation, etc. Like those library posters on ‘Read,’ we will continue to develop successful stories, and make sure that MTSU’s initiatives for international student retention, positive experience, graduation rates, etc. are the common goals throughout the institution and its academic supporting services like libraries. International Telecommunication Union, “Target 2: Connect Universities, Colleges, Secondary Schools and Primary Schools with ICTs,” World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report 2010 : Monitoring The WSIS Targets: A Mid-term Review, p.29-46, Telecommunication Union, “Target 3: Connect Scientific and Research Centres with ICTs,” World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report 2010, Monitoring The WSIS Targets: A Mid-term Review, p. 47-68,
  • Technology Bundles1. Project Management, Enterprise Architecture &Modeling2. Imaging and Document Capture3. Web Content Management from 2.0 to 3.0, includingcontent created from portal, desktop application,browser, e-form, and other web-based collaborationenvironment, such as Wiki, Flickr, instant messaging,Yahoo 360 & Food Site, Oracle OTN Site, MySpace,blog, RSS, social tagging, recommend, etc.4. Document Management5. Record and Retention Management6. Digital Asset Management7. ECM (Electronic Content Management) - Taxonomy,Thesauri, Topic Map, Meta-data8. Enterprise Search, Directory, Digital Signature, Auto-Classification, Clustering, Categorization, Security, RiskManagement9. Compliance to License, Auditing, Federal and LegalRegulations10. Information Reusability, Lifecycle and Retention Policy11. Data Warehouse, Business Intelligence, PerformanceManagement and Monitoring12. Business Process Management (BPM)13. Semantic Web Technologies14. Email Management15. Portal
  • 21st century Enrollment – Characteristics of 21st Century students – According to an EDUCAUSE article published in 2005 by Ron Bleed of Maricopa Community Colleges, in the United States, the average teenager spends 22,000 hours watching televisions by the time he or she graduated from high school. The average vocabulary of the average 14-year-old dropped from 25,000 words in 1950 to only 10,000 words in 1999. By age 21, the average student will have spent 10,000 hours on video games; sent or received 200,000 e-mails, talked for 10,000 hours on a cell phone, but read for under 5,000 hours. Proliferation of media has impact the lives of the young people. Through TV, video games, and movies, children are visually stimulated and learn from the new media. Our brains are getting better at problem solving despite of declining in reading. He also quoted that the industrial age was built on physical labor, and information age is built on people’s left-brain capabilities in logic, analysis, literalness, and sequentiality. The upcoming concept age will use people’s right brain capabilities in creativity, empathy, pattern recognition, and seeing the big picture. New students, new technologies and new senses are the future. The viable education strategy is media education. Teaching and learning of 21st Century Skills – In his article, Ron also noticed that there was a new kind of digital divine today, and it is the divide between faculty and students. Faculty, stuck in yesterday’s analog world, are confronted with students who arrive nicely fluent in digital technology and virtuals of hyper speed. Libraries have to bridge the digital divine between students and faculty, and be active participants in the training of the new learners, new technologies, new workforce skills, and new modes of creative expression while at the same time, honoring the tradition. Librarians have to understand the group coherent of the students and faculty, and provide an infrastructure that would promote advanced thinking, decision making, and whatever calls for the teaching and learning of 21st-century skills. 21st-century skills – According to enGauge report on 21st century learners, academic achievement entails the followings: a)digital age literacy (e.g. basic, scientific, economic, statistical and technological literacy; visual and information literacy, and multicultural literacy and global awareness); b)Inventive thinking (e.g. adaptability, managing complexity and self-direction; curiosity, creativity, and risk taking; high-order thinking and sound reasoning); c)Effective communication (teaming, collaboration, and interpersonal skills); personal, social, and civic responsibility, interactive communication; d) High productivity (prioritizing, planning, and managing for results; effective use of real-world tools; and ability to produce relevant, high-quality products. 21st Century research – According to Cliff Lynch, 21st century research entails the cyber infrastructure for research in science, engineering, humanities and social sciences. In science, the infrastructure components of science is more important than the science itself. High performance of computing, high availability and accessibility of data, people, organizations, and instrumentation have great impact on e-Research. Scientists in small labs can rely on tools to work with colleagues around the world, and produce scientific results through re-useable data made available to them for scientific analysis. Humanities can also communicate in systematic way with their colleagues through collaboration and simulation using data from across disciplines. Librarians can form partnership with faculty to curate the data sets, and address their challenges in the following: 1) regulatory compliance requirements; b) data management, e.g. strategies, plans, lifecycle, etc.; c) information dissemination services.
  • An example profile, based on certain features of the FocusOnSearch and CategoryMap tools, is as follows:Planner’s View• Data (What) - List things important to the enterprisePlanner regards FocusOn Search and CategoryMap as the enabler to: • Provide fine-grained search and categorization of university resources and library on the Web; • Track faculty research activities; • Identify, differentiate, engage, and customize collections and services to be tailored to the needsand wants of faculty and students;Function/Activities (How) – List of functions the enterprise performsPlanner sees that library enterprise performs the functions of:• Buyers / Collection Acquisitions• Gateways / Information Dissemination• Archives / Preservation• As a place to provide access to information, embracesocial learning and networking, and engagescholarly communication• Network /Locations (Where) – List of enterprise locationsPlanner knows that there are physical locations and virtuallocations of the enterprise.• People (Who) – List of organizations important to the enterprisePlanner values people in the organizations, e.g. faculty andstudents, researchers, administrators, and other librarysupporters within the community.• Time (When) – List of events significant to the enterprisePlanner knows list of events important to the community.• Motivation (Why) – List of enterprise goals/strategiesThe planner wants to reach the following goals:• Support multidisciplinary and interdisciplinaryresearch using quantitative data analysis• Support integrated access and discovery of theuniversity resources and libraries on the Webcovering structured and unstructured contents• Slice and dice the data better for reporting, tracking,and informed decision making• Leverage reusability and interoperability componentsand best practices
  • Business process management (BPM) for Libraries:3.1 Organization/knowledge society – Organizations compromise of four elements (people, processes, control mechanisms, and structure), which are powered by technologies, fueled by information, and social structure, and driven by knowledge;3.2 People – Refers to roles and responsibilities, skills, training, motivation, capability, and job fit, judging by adaptability, cognitive skills, complexity, curiosity, creativity, risk taking, self-direction, high-order of thinking and sound reasoning, communication skills;3.3. Processes – workflow and information flow, and control mechanisms to get the job done; 3.4 Domains – subject disciplines3.5 Technologies / Tools – capable to analysis, comparison, inference, interpretation, evaluation, synthesis, and assessment;3.6 Distribution / Tools - capable to select, collect, understand, interpret, use, act, create, access, locate, synthesis 3.7 Context – Transactional, promotional, and informational3.8Culture – Globalization and localization
  • Challenges Facing Metadata Services

    1. 1. Challenges Facing Metadata Services/Cataloging Departments (MSD) University of Maryland Libraries College Park, MD, Nov. 9, 2011 Presenter: Amanda Xu Candidate for Head, Metadata Services Dept., Univ. Of Maryland, Univ. Libraries Amanda_xu@yahoo.comLogo Source: University of Maryland. ”Transforming Maryland: Higher Expectations.”Executive Summary of Strategic Plan PowerPoint, slide#18.Retrieved from
    2. 2.  Challenges Facing Metadata Services/Cataloging Departments (MSD) in Alignment with Core Values and Principles of the University of Maryland, & Changing Nature of Scholarly Resources and Knowledge Access, etc. Answers to the Challenges Based on Personal Knowledge, Education, ExperienceOverview
    3. 3. Core Values and Principles• Build inclusive community• Embrace the power of technology• Act with entrepreneurial spirit• Take responsibility for the future Source: University of Maryland. ”Transforming Maryland: Higher Expectations.” Executive Summary of Strategic Plan PowerPoint, slide#2 & 18. Retrieved from
    4. 4.  “Ask self-examination  “Value excellence, diversity and questions – „Who are we? inclusiveness; What is our mission?‟  Value innovation and  Ask self-evaluation creativity; question – „How good are we? What are our  Value high ethical standards; challenges and  Value civility and collegiality opportunities‟  Value openness and  Ask self-determination question – „Are we accountability “ committed to moving to the next level among world-class universities?‟ „What do we expect from ourselves and those we serve?‟ ”  Source: University of Maryland. “Transform Maryland: Higher Expectations.” Strategic Plan Executive Summary PowerPoint, slide#2 &16. Retrieved from Does it Mean to MetadataServices & Cataloging Dept. (MSD)?
    5. 5. 1. Changing Nature of 6. Rising Expectations of End Scholarly Resources Users using Web as2. Changing Nature of Infrastructure for Knowledge Access Research, Teaching &3. Economic Challenges Learning and Opportunities for 7. Rising Expectations of Academic Libraries as Public Services Staff using Gateways, Archives, a Web as Infrastructure Place, Buyers, etc. 8. MSD in Alignment to Core4. Increasing Digital Nature Values and Mission of of Library Collections – UM, Changing Nature of Information as Product Resources, and Need of5. Innovative Approaches Library Users and Public to Bibliographic Control Services StaffWhat Does it Mean to MetadataServices & Cataloging Dept. (MSD)?
    6. 6. Trends Issues Access methods Systematic Approaches Publishing Participatory ContributionChanging Nature of Scholarly Resources –Research (1)
    7. 7. Trends Issues Access methods Systematic Approaches ParticipatoryScholarly Publishing ContributionCommunicationsChanging Nature of ScholarlyResources – Research (2)
    8. 8. Trends Issues Access methods Systematic ApproachesScholarly Publishing ParticipatoryCommunications ContributionChanging Nature of ScholarlyResources - Teaching & Learning (3)
    9. 9. Trends Issues Access methods Systematic ApproachesScholarly Publishing ParticipatoryCommunications ContributionChanging Nature of ScholarlyResources – Teaching & Learning(4)
    10. 10. Create Expertise ServicesChanging Nature of Knowledge Access –Knowledge Creation as Researcher (1)
    11. 11. Trends Issues Access methods Systematic ApproachesScholarly Publishing ParticipatoryCommunications ContributionChanging Nature of Knowledge Access – KnowledgeCreation and Dissemination Process (2)
    12. 12.  Metadata standards  Service-centered Bibliographic control Approaches Authority control ◦ Alignment to Institutional Goals Knowledge ◦ Service Improvement Management to End Users and Library ColleaguesChanging Nature of KnowledgeAccess – MSD (3)
    13. 13. “ Provide instant access to electronic library holdings andresources of multiple arrays deemed essential for scholars,students and the public” • MSD – Supporting library‟s role as gateways to info space by embedding library resources, bibliographic data, authority data, holdings data, user data, and linkages optimized into the context of user preferred experience:Programs as Research Toolkit – • Academic Expertise/Tools/Resources/Services/Infrastructure LMS (Learning Management Systems)/CMS (Course Management Systems) / GIS (Geographic Information Services) / Research Statistical Services / Discovery Services / Google enterprise search /Library portals … • MSD - Ensuring linked data quality by providing complete, clean, consistent, secured, and current data for holdings, resource identity, etc. in compliance with bibliographic control standards, provisions of use, privacy, and info security in cost effective mannerLibrary as Gateways
    14. 14. “With greater capacity for resources” MSD – Honoring tradition by continuously selecting, acquiring, organizing, maintaining, tracking and reporting, evaluating active holdings for print, media, electronic, and other resources of all types via integrated library systems, and any other external systems in the network“ Social learning and social networking” MSD – Embracing changes to the library landscape by incorporating the appropriate toolkit/infrastructure into the library that supports social learning and networking, including using Web as infrastructure with optimized processes and control objectives, e.g. strategic alignment, change management, performance measures, process maturity measures, etc.“ Scholarly community and intellectual engagement” MSD – Participating in the infrastructure development for effective dissemination of ideas in the form of talks, exhibits, and forums.Library as a Place
    15. 15. “ Advanced technology for digital resources curation, production &preservation of text, images, sound, videos customized to the usercommunity of the academic library upon request” 1. MSD - Developing in-house expertise in digital resources curation, production & preservation; 2. MSD - Providing trainings for staff to be fluent with digital resources curation, production & preservation standards, best practices, and tools; 3. MSD – Actively participating in lab development for creation, conversion, preservation, digitization in collaboration with content & tech partners, especially Special Collections, Research Port, IT Unit, and othersLibrary as Archives
    16. 16. Selectively acquiring or subscribing or on-demand distributing critical mass of information resources by discipline, e.g. Linked Library Data, Z39.50, EDI, OpenURL, OAI, Web Services API, XML/XSL, and ILS: 1. MSD – Providing metadata support to enable the next generation of library technologies in collection development, acquisitions, cataloging, serials control, ERMS (Electronic Resources Management Systems), and linked data in highly integrated, automated and maintainable computing environment; 2. MSD – Improving IT infrastructure of the library for auto- processing information resources in various formats in collaboration with external and internal partners & in compliance with control objectives and process maturity measures for info systems and enterprise architecture defined by COBIT 5.0, TOGAF 9.0, and leveraged by library-specific IT industry as super users;Library as a Buyer – Resource Processing
    17. 17. 11. Auto citation integration1. ILS 12. Data & record management2. ERMS for institution and archival3. Full-text A-Z contents4. Discovery services 13. Library portals for library5. Google Search Appliance content and service distribution6. Link Resolver toolkit/framework/infrastructure7. ILL •Research Port8. eReserve •OAI & community-based9. eReferences portals10.Integrated support for 14. specialized services with Measures, evaluation, refinement CMS, LMS, social media , & strategic alignment sites, location-based services, etc.Library as a Buyer – Service Point
    18. 18. MSD - Providing support for a well-established, ubiquitous, pervasive,reliable, configurable, robust, and public accessible informationinfrastructure and computing environment, which integrate people,organizations, processes, data, information, and technologies in such acoherent manner that the objectives of a digital library can beperformed, measured and controlled at the lowest meaningful andatomic level;MSD - Providing support for relevant, engaged, and customizedinformation contents and services, which cover all resources, allvocabularies, and all languages to any given user at any time withcritical mass in compliance with control objectives and processmaturity measures for info systems and enterprise architecture definedby COBIT 5.0, TOGAF 9.0, and leveraged by library-specific ITindustry;MSD - Empowering the whole brain team using leadership,communication skills, project management, analytical skills,collaboration, and teamwork. Library as A Universal Digital Library Infrastructure
    19. 19. D-Lib Infrastructures, Learning Places, Problem-Solving, Compliance •Institutionalizing What Works Well &Refining or Retiring What’s Not •Tracing & Assessing D-Lib ResearchInfo Needs for D-Lib Research Penetration Maturity Level Penetration 360 ° in Compliance to Industry Standards for Capability Maturity Level, Customer Satisfaction, Quality Control, TCO, Web-scaled Infrastructures, etc. •Embedding D-Lib Research into LMS, Social Media Sites, and Other Users’ Experience Ubiquitously, Pervasively & Intentionally •Enhancing D-Lib Research Content, Pedagogy, Skills, etc •Training Lib Faculty and Staff •Establishing D-Lib Research Penetration Core Competence Team & Center of Excellence •Defining Baselines for D-Lib Research Penetration •Checking Reality – Champions, Niche Players, Innovators, Challengers, etc. among Peer-Institutions Process Requirements & Level of D-Lib Research Penetration in LMS & Social Media Sites Info Needs & Process Requirements for D-Lib Research Penetration into LMS & Social Media Sites Using Student-Centered Approach [1], [2], [3] 6/17/2010 Slide 19 of 1
    20. 20. Increasing Digital Nature of Lib Content - Info as Product•Tools/Solutions/Services/Expe • All resources/models rtise • All vocabularies•Gateways, Archives, Place, Buy ers • All media types•Universal D-Lib Infrastructure • All formats•D-Lib Research Hub & Toolkit • All languages•Resources & Data Management • All locations•Connect/Social/Location • All timelines•/Collaborate Embedding • All profiles•People/Team/Community Enabling Resources/•/Project Technology Services•/Process Management•Outreach - Partners & Customers User Experience Context •Mobile/Social/Cultural/ (Teaching, ual •Physical/Online/Cloud Local/Augmented Learning, Distributi •/Ubiquitous/NFC/Virtual •Semantic/analytical/vis Researching) on Reality ualizing •Browsers/Desktops/Device •3D/Surface Touching s/Mobiles/Sensors/Environ •Multimodal interfaces ments •Language •Channeling Through •Disciplines Traditional & Emerging •Usability Value-Chains 20 •Accessibility • Customized/Personalized/ Intentional/Experiential
    21. 21. Increasing Digital Nature of Lib Content – Info As Product ->The Process Enablers Technology /Infrastructure 1. Plan & Organize 2. Acquire & User Implementexperie 3. Deliver & Resources/ nce Support Services 4. Measure, Eval uate & Refine Distribution 21
    22. 22. Increasing Digital Nature of Lib Content – Info As Product -> The People/Team Enablers Awareness, communication & training Policies, plans & procedures Tools & automation Skills, expertise & fitness Responsibility & accountability Goal & scope setting, measurement, team building, buy-in, consensus, expectations 22
    23. 23. Increasing Digital Nature of Library Contents – Info as Product -> The Measurement Enablers 23
    24. 24. Increasing Digital Nature of Library Collection –Information as Product –>Technical Enabler (1) Project management, enterprise architecture (EA), EA modeling and business process modeling Content capturing Content modeling and content management systems Search engine services Enterprise service bus (ESB) and service-oriented architecture (SOA) Relational, multidimensional and ontological database management systems and administration Portal solutions Customer relationship management Service resolution management Business intelligence and reporting Specialized content and services, e.g. location as service, IaaS, Intentional Discovery, etc. Information security
    25. 25. Increasing Digital Nature of Library Collection –Information as Product ->Technical Enabler (2)
    26. 26. Increasing Digital Nature of Library Collection –Information as Product ->Technical Enabler (3)
    27. 27.  21st century enrollment ◦ New students, new technologies and new senses ◦ Media savvy, and always connected Teaching and learning 21st century skills ◦ Digital divide between faculty and students ◦ Mending the gaps by Library  Digital age literacy  Inventive thinking  Effective communication  High productivity 21st century research ◦ Cyber infrastructure for research in science, engineering, humanities and social sciences One to one engagementRising Expectations of End Users Using WebAs Infrastructure (1)
    28. 28. Rising Expectations of Public ServicesStaff Using Web As Infrastructure (2) Self-services Few interfaces & end points for services Relevant and connected User experience On-demand generation of info resources, e.g. tutorials for info literacy, RSS, distance learners, etc. Instructions & reference services Liaison services to labs, centers, and departments, etc. Training & being trained
    29. 29. Answers to Challenges Discovery Systems  Knowledge access Leadership & strategies Expertise ◦ Define Project ◦ Setup metrics ◦ Evaluate management, Analysi ◦ Measure s & Teamwork ◦ Refine Workflows &  Innovative approach Communications ◦ Alignment to rubrics for Training teaching, learning, rese Partnerships arch assessment
    30. 30. Metadata Services Cataloging Dept Resources, standards & technologies proliferation  Quantity & quality & variations Profile-  Parallel development based, crosswalk, conversion  Engagement relevance Interchange, reuse, participa  Rapid changes & tory backward compatible Global access to data  Increasingly digital Info processing increasingly  Updatable using Web as Infrastructure  Reduce cost and stay Modeling from content visible as part of the creation tools pursuit of excellence at UM Tie user experience in content design, integration, analysis, enhancement SimulationAnswers to Challenges Visualization
    31. 31. Innovative Approaches to Bibliographic Control(1) ◦ A library resource is increasingly becoming an info product, e.g. parts of a book or collection of books aggregated, distributed, and disaggregated in heterogeneous computing environment with end service point on the Web platform geared toward a specific user group community, who are the supporters of the library services (M.V.C. & M.G.C.); ◦ Unified/federated/discovery approach to bibliographic control of library resources purchased, licensed, in-house developed, or freely available in the public domain through common infrastructures compostable, comparable and maintainable at presentation layer, application layer, service layer, business logic layer, database layer, network layer, content model layer, etc. in design- time, development-time, run-time, and operational environment;
    32. 32. Innovative Approaches to Bibliographic Control (2)  Any collection of electronic data, from library catalogs to collections of full-text packages whether structured or unstructured in any media type on the Internet can be: ◦ Interwoven with enterprise-wide resources, processes, services, systems and devices ◦ Mined through automated means, e.g. named entity and noun phrases extraction, analysis, association, and interpretation ◦ Sliced and diced for better forecasting and decision making using data warehousing and business intelligence packages on things such as library collection development, assessment, and re-organization  Bibliographic control is increasingly a matter of managing relationships – among works, names, concepts, and object descriptions across communities with emphasis on reuse, scalability, maintainability, traceability, efficiency, and productivity using Web as Infrastructure
    33. 33. Innovative Approaches to Bibliographic Control (3) Traditional information context ◦ Markup ◦ Types – Descriptive, Technical, Administrative, Structural, Preservation; ◦ Typical library metadata schemes – MARC, TEI, EAD, Dublin Core, VRA, MODS, MIX, METS, PREMIS, CDWA, OAI-PHM ◦ A metadata scheme specifies – structure, syntax, content ◦ Crosswalks among metadata schemas ◦ Maintenance – validation, CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) & archive Digital information context ◦ Linked Data & Internet of Things ◦ CIA – Confidential, Integrity, Available ◦ Process maturity measures ◦ Adaptable, maintainable & lifecycle ◦ Separation of concerns: rules; patterns; structures, behavior & user experience
    34. 34. Infrastructure and Academic Support // We will build an infrastructure and academic support systems essential to a world-class university.Source: University of Maryland. ”Transforming Maryland:Higher Expectations.” Executive Summary of Strategic PlanPowerPoint, slide#14.Retrieved from
    35. 35. MSD Alignment to Core Values and Mission ofUniversity, and to Changing Need of Library Usersand Public Services Staff – Understand Users’Perspectives (1) What data are involved with the systems? How and what are expected systems behavior? Where are the logistics of the network for the systems? Who are the users, and what are their access rights andprivileges for the systems? When and what system procedures will be generated for what business activities? Contextual-level req.? Why or what are purposes for the system functions to be built?
    36. 36. MSD Alignment to Core Values and Mission ofUM, and to Changing Need of Library Users andPublic Services Staff – Understand Users’Perspectives (2)
    37. 37. MSD Alignment to Core Values and Mission of UM, toChanging Needs of Users and Public Service Staff -Business Process Management (3)MSD BPM Processes People Domains Organizations Tech & Distribution Context & culture
    38. 38. MSD Alignment to Core Values and Mission of UM, andChanging Needs of Users and Public Service Staff -Control Objectives for Info Systems Defined by COBIT5.0 (4)
    39. 39. MSD Alignment to Core Values and Mission of UM, andChanging Needs of Users and Public Service Staff - EnterpriseArchitecture Best Practices Defined by TOGAF 9.0 (5)
    40. 40. ReferencesIT Governance Institute. 2007. “Figure 13 – Generic Maturity Model.” COBIT Framework, p. 19.IT Governance Institute. 2007. “Figure 15 – Maturity Attribute Table.” COBIT Framework. p. 21.ISACA. Figure 3 – COBIT 5 Information Reference Model. COBIT 5 Design Paper Exposure Draft, March 18, 2010.Lynch, C. (2009). Digital Dilemmas Symposium: Challenges, Opportunities, Solutions, METRO, New York, NY, April 16, 2009.Lee, Y. W., Pipino, L. L., Funk, J. D., Wang, R. Y. (2006). “Managing information as product.” Journey to Data Quality. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 125-135.Marcum, D. B. (2008). “LC Response to On the Record: Report of the Library of Congress Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control.” Retrieved from future/news/LCWGResponse-Marcum-Final-061008.pdf.Open Group Adoption Strategy Working Group. (2009, April). “Figure 2: Enterprise architecture capability model.” World-Class Enterprise Architecture Framework Guidance and TOGAF 9 Example.Schonfeld, R. (2009). Digital Dilemmas Symposium: Challenges, Opportunities, Solutions, METRO, New York, NY, April 16, 2009.