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BRASS MBA in a Day


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BRASS MBA in a Day, ALA Annual 2012, Elisabeth Leonard

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BRASS MBA in a Day

  1. 1. The 70 minute manager Elisabeth Leonard, MSLS, MBA Market Research Analyst SAGE Publications, Inc.
  2. 2. Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  3. 3. formallyManagement is “the art of getting things done through people” Mary Parker Foskett 1941. Dynamic Administration. London: Pittman Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  4. 4. Breaking it down by function Planning Organizing Staffing Directing Controlling (Evaluating) Reporting BudgetingBased on Henri Fayol ~1872Gulick, Luther and Urwick, Lyndall (1937) Papers on the Science of Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare: Administration, Institute of Public Administration, New York
  5. 5. Who writes about it? Popular literature abounds! Anyone can be a manager or write a book about it. Studied by faculty in business, psychology, sociology, communications, and any discipline that includes practitioners Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  6. 6. Topics include: Management and leadership roles, styles and traits, team performance, conflict resolution, motivation, human resources, strategic planning, operations, organizational culture and hierarchy, negotiations, ethics, diversity, change management, innovation, stress, unions, communication, agenda setting, and much more Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  7. 7. Top management journals MIS Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, Organizational Science, Administrative Science Quarterly, Strategic Management Journal, Organizational Research Methods, Leadership Quarterly, MIT Sloane Management Review, Harvard Business Review, Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, International Small Business Journal, IEEE Transactions of Engineering Management, Industrial and Corporate Change, British Journal of Management, California Management Review, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  8. 8. Schools of thoughtPAST AS PROLOGUE Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  9. 9. Time Line Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  10. 10. Classical perspective:scientific management Taylor  Worker is economically motivated  Maximize output and minimize inefficiencies Frank and Lillian Gilbreth  Motion studies Henry Gannt  Formalized Taylor’s time studies  Gannt charts (project management) Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  11. 11. Gannt chart Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  12. 12. Program Evaluation and ReviewTechnique (PERT) Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  13. 13. Behavioral school of thought Human relations movement  Focus on the individual: if I can make you happy, you will be a more productive employee  Best known: Chester Barnard (social responsibility, fair wages), Mary Parker Follett (shared goals, worker participation), Elton Mayo (Hawthorne studies) Self-actualizing Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  14. 14. Self-actualizing:Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor (1960) There are 2 styles, X and Y, that establish managers’ expectations  Theory X (authoritarian management)  Average person:  Inherently dislikes work  Must be coerced, controlled, directed, threatened with punishment  Aren’t able to solve work problems  Prefers to be directed and wishes to avoid responsibility Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  15. 15. Theory X and Theory Y Theory Y (participative management)  The average person  Physical and mental effort is as natural as play or rest  Doesn’t dislike work  Work can be satisfying & will be done voluntarily  Accepts and seeks responsibility  Imagination and creativity is widely distributed in an organization  Intellectual potentials are only partially utilised  Belief in Theory Y leads to decentralization, delegation, empowerment Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  16. 16. Theory Z W.S. Ouchi (1981) Democratic management style, based on Japanese management, with interest in employees’ work-life  Workers are loyal and interested in team work and the organization  Collective decision making Or a manager’s style might be somewhere in between these! Theory Y Participative (laissez-faire) Theory X Autocratic Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare: Theory Z Democratic
  17. 17. Management science school Also called quantitative school Harkens back to scientific management World War II Applies mathematical and statistical thinking Production becomes Operations Management  Inventory control theory, goal programming, queuing models, and simulation Birth of MIS Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  18. 18. Modern management:Systems theory Focus on organization as a whole and as an ecosystem Each unit affects every other unit Decisions are made after considering impact on others (including partners) Stakeholders, not just shareholders Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  19. 19. Modern management:Total Quality Management (TQM) Big in the 80’s and into the 90’s Total: Quality involves everyone and all activities in the company. Quality: Conformance to requirements Management: typically top down TQM: continuous improvement; permeates everything the company and each employee does*Training and professional development stressed Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  20. 20. What TQM is used for Improve customer service Increase productivity Decrease need to rework/scrap Improve product reliability Decrease time-to-market cycles Increase competitive advantage? Now is “Quality Management” Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  21. 21. Modern management:learning organization Peter Senge Focus on problem solving, not efficiency Continuous change Every employee has a role Team learning Shared vision Shift from command-control to informationElisabethAnn | Slideshare: Twitter: based organization (Drucker)
  22. 22. Leadership and management
  23. 23. Remember this? Planning Organizing Staffing Directing (Leading) Controlling (Evaluating) Reporting BudgetingBased on Henri Fayol ~1872Gulick, Luther and Urwick, Lyndall (1937) Papers on the Science of Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare: Administration, Institute of Public Administration, New York
  24. 24. Where once it was about the leadership…You can’t lead if no one follows Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  25. 25. followership Popularized by business professor Robert Kelley in 1988 Harvard Business Review “In Praise of Followers” and 1992 book The Power of Followership. Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  26. 26. following has changed Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  27. 27. Basics of change andinnovationWhat a manager should know
  28. 28. Lewins Three Step Change Theory:Foundations Change involves learning something new AND discontinuing current attitudes, behaviors, or organizational practices. There must be sufficient motivation to change. This is often the most difficult part of the change process. People are at the core of all organizational changes. Effective change requires reinforcing new behaviors, attitudes, and organizational practices. Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  29. 29. Three steps for change  unfreezing  changing  refreezing Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  30. 30. Step one: Unfreezing Goal: release the status quo! The focus is to motivate individuals to change. Encourage old behaviors and attitudes to be replaced with desired behaviors and attitudes Recognize all issues openly Brainstorm as a group Trust is essential Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  31. 31. Step two: Change Goal: arrive at a new understanding Employees learn new information, behavioral models and view points. Useful at this stage are role models, mentors, experts, benchmarking, and training. Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  32. 32. Step three: Refreeze Change is stabilized. Employees integrate what they learned in stage 2 into their routine Use positive reinforcement, coaching, modeling Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  33. 33. There’s more to it Model is linear; change isn’t "Understand and honor the DNA of the organization. The system will reject you otherwise."[1] Many factors motivate people for or against change Resistance to change occurs even when the goals are desired by everyone. [1] Berfield, S. (2007, February 12). The Right Way To Shake Up a Company. Business Week. Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  34. 34. Change agents The change agent is someone “who translates the strategic change vision of leaders into pragmatic change behaviour. They will be the early adopters — through structured learning programmes and other stimuli — of the new values, actions and skills required by the company. Through this knowledge, they will act as a catalyst for the introduction of new ways of doing things across the four corners of the corporation. Their goal will be to act as a positive virus infecting their host company.”[1][1] Dover, P. (2003, February). Change agents at work: Lessons from Siemens Nixdorf. Journal of Change Management, 3(3), 243. Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  35. 35. Which leads to innovation Not all change is innovation Something new to an organization that adds value Biggest name: Rogers Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  36. 36. Rogers Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  37. 37. Innovation Something new Adds value Process or product Incremental or radical Needs to be encouraged  R&D, skunkworks, pockets of innovation, organization wide, open innovation Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  38. 38. What’s the point of it all?Managers are taught: Know who you are, who your employees are, and who you serve Know what the situation is  Culture, stakeholders, strategic direction, short term and long term goals Decide how best to meet the challenges of the situation (follows the contingency school of thought!) Evaluate the results Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare: Adjust and Repeat.
  39. 39. Resources to help you TOC alerts strategy+business Knowledge@Wharton YouTube! Textbooks Business Week and NYT bestsellers Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  40. 40. YOUR TURN! Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  41. 41. STRATEGY Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  42. 42. Strategic planning vs. operations Operations is day to day Strategic plan is long term  SWOT (1960’s)  Look at how to achieve vision and or competitive advantage Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  43. 43. Competitive advantage Michael Porter Compete on cost, differentiation, focus Five forces  Bargaining power of customers  Bargaining power of suppliers  Threat of new entrants  Threat of substitute products  Rivalry within industry Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  44. 44. Five Forces Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  45. 45. Patrons and their questions Don’t be surprised by…  A VERY specific question for a very broad assignment (team work in action)  The patron doesn’t come alone (team work in action)  The patron (including the student) is working under a tight deadline  The patron has a question and isn’t sharing enough info (often Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare: or a concern a personnel issue about competitive intelligence)
  46. 46. Resource based view (RBV) From Penrose Popularized by Prahalad and Hamel Adds firms resources to the SW Ideally makes it harder for other firms to catch upThe core competencies of the organization. Harvard Business Review. May/June 1990, p. 79-91.Penrose, E. (1959). The theory and growth of the firm. New York: Wiley. Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare:
  47. 47. Knowledge based view Based on Penrose Leverage knowledge for creating current goods/services to other areas (core competencies) Twitter: ElisabethAnn | Slideshare: