• Ban on all matte incandescent bulbs and clear 100 watt1/9 2009 incandescent bulbs • Ban on clear 75 watt incandescent bulbs1/9 2010 • Ban on clear 60 watt incandescent bulbs1/9 2011 • Ban on clear 40 watt and clear 25 watt incandescent bulbs1/9 2012 • More stringent requirements for low-energy bulbs and LED1/9 2013 lamps • More stringent requirements for halogen bulbs1/9 2016
Normal Light Bulb CompactFluorecentLampEnergy Consumption 100 W 20 WDurability 1,000 hours 10,000 hoursPricing $5 $15
Existing conceptions of light bulbs Other products not adapted
Environmental concerns among consumers Improved technology Power strategies from legislators
Cowan and Hultén (1996) identify six mainfactors that could possibly evoke an escapefrom an existent lock-in or completely unlocka market.
Conventional bulbs still serving their initial purpose But relative/perceived efficiency decreased
Very critical factor for the future of the light bulb market Governments to promote the use of CFL or even ban incandescent bulbs
Higher retail price But a cost advantage in the long run (life duration and low energy consumption)
Crucial factor Consumers increasingly concerned about environmental issues More and more prefer environmentally friendly products
Of minimal importance No big niche for the CFL bulbs Few early adopters
Innovative technology enabled the invention and production of CFL bulbs This knowledge put “pressure on the old technology” and questioned its efficiency.