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The Semantic Web: An Introduction

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One way to introduce the Semantic Web and semantic technologies to researchers

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The Semantic Web: An Introduction

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE SEMANTIC WEB Elena Simperl, University of Southampton, UK e.simperl@soton.ac.uk @esimperl
  2. 2. THE BEGINNINGS “The Semantic Web is not a separate Web but an extension of the current one, in which information is given well- defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation” [Berners-Lee, Hendler & Lassila, 2001]
  3. 3. NOT A SEPARATE WEB Decentralized information space (for people) Consisting of documents and other Web resources  Uniquely identified  Connected to each other via hyperlinks  Accessed via the Internet  Created and used by different parties Technologies  URIs  HTML  HTTP http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html
  4. 4. BUT AN EXTENSION OF THE CURRENT ONE A decentralized information space (for computers and people) A Web of data Consisting of information and non-information resources  Uniquely identified  Connected to each other via hyperlinks  Accessed via the Internet  Created and used by different parties
  5. 5. INFORMATION WITH WELL-DEFINED MEANING Machines can process Web information ‘intelligently One can encode this additional information in a machine- processable way Using formal knowledge representation languages and reasoning This article is about a person This article is about a writer People and writers have characteristic properties e.g., • they are born somewhere • they publish books • books have topics, chapters, a price etc.
  6. 6. COMPUTERS AND PEOPLE WORK IN COOPERATION Artificial intelligence: “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines” [John Mc Carthy, http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/whatisai.html] Areas of AI  Knowledge representation  Inference  Logics  Search  Planning and scheduling  Pattern recognition  Learning  Natural language processing  Computer vision  Robotics  ....
  7. 7. MEANING ON THE WEB  Add metadata to Web resources  Different types of links  Encode additional information about metadata entities and links in ontologies  No global information schemas  Incomplete and inconsistent [Examples from Wikipedia]
  8. 8. YOU DON’T HAVE TO BUILD YOUR OWN ONTOLOGY
  9. 9. LINKED DATA MAKES DATA INTEGRATION EASY Concepts, entities, and properties are accessible on the Web just as traditional Web documents Linked Data: Set of technologies and principles to publish and access data on the Web http://lod-cloud.net/ http://www.ted.com/talks/tim_berners_lee_o n_the_next_web.html
  10. 10. SEMANTIC WEB STACK Standardized family of languages  Compatible with the Web architecture  With a formal semantics Linked data is part of the stack Tools  Editors  Data stores  Reasoners  Machine learning  NLP  Data interlinking  …
  11. 11. FROM THE SEMANTIC WEB TO SEMANTIC TECHNOLOGIES “The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries” [W3C]
  12. 12. EXAMPLE: KNOWLEDGE GRAPH MAKING SEARCH MORE INTELLIGENT http://googleblog.blogspot.gr/2012/05/introducing-knowledge-graph-things-not.html
  13. 13. EXAMPLE: BBC & MEDIA CONTENT PUBLISHING AND INTEGRATION
  14. 14. EXAMPLE: OPEN GRAPH INTEROPERABLE CONTENT REPRESENTATION Represent Web content in a social graph in an interoperable way Used by Facebook (‘stories’), Google (snippets), IMDb etc. Facebook: actors, apps, objects with metadata to create stories  Example: Elena has finished reading ‘The Economist’, an object of type Newspaper  Types with attributes, extensions allowed  Pre-defined and custom actions on objects 14 http://ogp.me/ Image from https://developers.facebook.com/docs/opengraph/creatin g-custom-stories 29-Aug-15
  15. 15. EXAMPLE: PROJECT HALO 29.08.2015 Images from http://www.projecthalo.com and http://www.inquireproject.com/
  16. 16. EXAMPLE: DATA.GOV USING LINKED DATA TO PUBLISH GOVERNMENT OPEN DATA
  17. 17. SEMANTIC WEB TODAY Semantic Web technologies, standardized by the W3C, are mature  RDF recommendation in 1999, update in 2004  RDFa (RDF in HTML) note in 2008  RDFS recommendation in 2004  SPARQL recommendation in 2008  OWL recommendation in 2004, update in 2009 Schema.org markup (RDFa, microformats, microdata)  http://www.webdatacommons.org/structureddata/ Linked Open Data  http://linkeddatacatalog.dws.informatik.uni- mannheim.de/state/ Ontologies  http://lov.okfn.org/dataset/lov/
  18. 18. JOIN THE SEMANTIC WEB COMMUNITY Mailing lists  public_lod  semanticweb  Diverse others for special topics (Dbpedia, schema.org etc.) Facebook, LinkedIn, Quora Conferences  Academic: ESWC, ISWC, WWW, AAAI etc.  Applied/industry: Semantics, SmartData etc. Workshops  Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining Meets Linked Open Data @ESWC  Consuming Linked Data @ISWC  Detection, Representation, and Exploitation of Events in the Semantic Web @ESWC  Services and Applications over Linked APIs and Data @ESWC  Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative @ISWC  Semantic Statistics @ISWC  Ontology Design Patterns @ISWC  NLP & Dbpedia @ISWC  Linked Data for Information Extraction @ISWC  …

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