Insemtives iswc2010


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Insemtives iswc2010

  1. 1. Ten ways to make your semantic app addictive Elena Simperl ISWC 2010 1
  2. 2. Executive summary• Many aspects of semantic content authoring naturally rely on human contribution.• Motivating users to contribute is essential for semantic technologies to reach critical mass and ensure sustainable growth.• This tutorial is about – Methods and techniques to study incentives and motivators applicable to semantic content authoring scenarios. – How to implement the results of such studies through technology design, usability engineering, and game mechanics. 2
  3. 3. Our approach• Typology of semantic content authoring tasks and the ways they could motivate users to contribute.• Methodology for analyzing and designing incentivized semantic applications.• Pilots, showcases and technology. 3
  4. 4. Incentives and motivation• Incentives are ‘rewards’ assigned by an external ‘judge’ to a performer for undertaking a specific task.• Common belief (among economists): incentives can be translated into a sum of money for all practical purposes.• Incentives can be related to both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. – Extrinsic motivation if task is considered • Boring, dangerous, useless, socially undesirable, dislikable by the performer. – Intrinsic motivation if • The performer likes what he/she is doing • The act is satisfying in itself (for various reasons). 4
  5. 5. Examples (i) 5
  6. 6. Examples (ii) 6
  7. 7. Examples (iii) 7
  8. 8. Harnessing human intelligenceFacebook reports 4,000,000,000 minutes (> 7500 person years) are spent on the site every day More than 18 000 titles preserved in 10 years Recaptcha users solve 60 million CAPTCHAs a day, which accounts for around 160,000 human hours (19 person years) 8
  9. 9. Harnessing human intelligence 9
  10. 10. Which tasks can be crowdsourced?• Modularity/Divisibility: • Combinability can the task be divided – Additive: pulling a rope (group performs better than into smaller chunks (see individuals, but each casual games, Amazon’s individual pulls less hard) Mechanical Turk, open – Conjunctive: running in a pack (performance is that of source software) the weakest member, group• Skills and expertise: size reduces group performance) does the task address a – Disjunctive: answering a quiz broad audience (see (group size increases group CAPTCHAs, casual performance in term of the time needed to answer) games) 10
  11. 11. Example: video annotation 11
  12. 12. Example: ontology alignment 12
  13. 13. Example: ontology evaluation 13
  14. 14. Typology of semantic contentauthoring tasks: Table from D1.2.2 14
  15. 15. Challenges• Task selection, work breakdown and distribution of labor• Domain selection and creation of knowledge corpus• Deriving formal representations from user inputs• Technology design• Intrinsic motivations 15
  16. 16. Factors affecting participation• prize is higher• participants are more intrinsically motivated , have more free time, are non-experts in the field , and are not participating due to career concerns, social motivations, or to beat others. (Lakhani et al, 2007) 16
  17. 17. Outline of the tutorialTime Presentation09:00 – 09:30 Human contributions in semantic content authoring09:30 – 10:30 Methods and techniques to analyze and design incentivized semantic applications10:30 – 11:00 Coffee break11:00 – 12:30 Guidelines for incentivized technology design12:30 - 13:30 Lunch break13:30 – 14:30 Casual games for semantic content creation14:30 – 15:00 Hands-on (Part I)15:00 – 15:30 Coffee break15:30 – 17:00 Hands-on (Part II)17:00 – 17:30 Wrap-up and closing 17
  18. 18. Realizing the Semantic Web byencouraging millions of end-users 8/10/2011 create semantic content. to 18