Constructivism Learning Theories By Sami Katz Sabrina Dugan Brooke Cleveland Kaitlyn Robin Derek Funk
Jean Piaget 1896-1980 Biologist who studied the development of children’s understanding through observation.
The Development Theory The key people associated with this theory are children. To truly understand the entire theory, it needs to be tested on someone that you could watch grow up, such as your child The whole reason behind this theory is to show that as a child grows up, the view of the world changes drastically. Also depending on the age of the child, it shows who they depend on.
Key Points of the Theory There are different stages of this theory, depending on the age of the child. 1st stage- Sensori-motor (Birth-2 years) Achieves object permanence. Differentiates self from objects Pre-operational (2-7 years) Learns to use language and represent objects by images Concrete operational- (7-11 years) Thinks logically about objects and events Formal Operational Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systematically
Piaget in the Classroom The teacher cannot simply tell the students what to do. There is less emphasis on directly teaching specific skills and more emphasis on learning in a meaningful context. Technology can provide essential tools which will help to accomplish the goals of a constructivist classroom. With technology support; teachers can provide a learning environment that helps expand the abstract and experiential background of the reader. Students in a Piagetian classroom construct knowledge by interacting in meaningful ways with the world around them. Whole activities, as opposed to isolated skill exercises, authentic activities which are inherently interesting and meaningful to the student, and real activities that result in something other than a grade on a test or a "Great, you did well" from the computer lesson software, are emphasized in Piagetian classrooms. Asking students to explain new material in their own words can assist them in assimilating it by forcing them to re- express the new ideas in their existing vocabulary. Students could use technology by building a power point to propose a new business plan and calculate their budget to help with math skills.
Thoughts on Piaget’s Theory Piaget’s theory is great for the classroom. I would love to use his theory in my classroom because it’s not just teaching the subject it’s interacting and building knowledge through experience. It makes it easier to learn a subject if you are using it in the real world. For instance, students are more likely to learn something if they are engaged in meaningful activities such as operating a class "store" or "bank" or writing and editing a class newspaper. This would be a great way to teach them to use division or punctuation.
Lev Vygotsky (1896 - 1934) Russian Psychologist who came up with the social development theory. Vygotsky’s theory favored the cultural line of development.
Social Development Theory Vygotsky focused on how people used tools such as speech and writing ,that developed from a culture because he believed that higher thinking skills could only be achieved by the successful internalization of these tools He studied the connections between people and their social experiences. Vygotsky’s theory places more emphasis on:1) Culture and the way it shapes cognitive development.2) Social factors and their contribution to cognitive development.3) Role of language and how it contributes to development.
Key Points of the Theory His theory revolves around the theme that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. Basically, social learning tends to precede development according to Vygotsky. Another important part of the theory says that that the potential for cognitive development depends upon the "zone of proximal development.“ What is the zone of proximal development? a level of development that is attained when children engage in social behavior. And children full development depends highly upon full social interaction.
Vygotsky in the Classroom The teachers should work to discover the level of each child’s cognitive/social development, then work to build or construct the child’s learning experiences from that point. Vygotsky referred to this process as scaffolding. The scaffold is the altering of the schemata, which is the organized way of creating/providing a cognitive mental framework for understanding and remembering information. When teachers and other students provide information along with different perspectives for one another, those sources can turn into a scaffold, serving as a temporary source of knowledge. The teachers can then help students assimilate this knowledge and build their own, thus removing the need of a scaffold. Vygotsky believed that through the Social development theory, students should work collaboratively to share their individual perspectives with one another. An example of this would be students working together using handheld computers to solve math problems. The students can be taught by anchor instruction in the classroom. They use the anchored instruction as a model for technology based learning and is the form of instruction where the student already has learned concepts and information. An anchored instruction motivates students to build new ideas and anchor them to what they already have learned.
Thoughts on Vygotsky’s Theory I would use the theory of social development in my classroom because it helps students interact with other students and their teacher. Social interaction plays a key role in the development of the cognition. I would also use the zone of proximal development in the classroom because it further raises the potential for cognition development. This level is of development is attained when students engage in social behavior. It would help the students with their full potential of development, so it would be beneficial to use this theory throughout the classroom. I would have the students engage in collaborative groups so they could work together to achieve things will working together as a team.
Dewey In The Classroom In the classroom for Dewey’s style of teaching, the teacher does not just lecture and shootout information needed to be memorized, teachers created activities that combined concrete and practical relevance to the lives of their students. Also the teachers sometimes were just there for resources. This was because Dewey thought learning should be student directed. The use of technology could give the resources needed for students. Also technology could help connect with students and relate to them with how technology is used in todays world. Teachers can set up experiments and situations for the students to use to learn by doing. With this theory the students are the main part of learning. Students learn by doing and interacting with things that are relevant to their lives. This makes things much easier to learn knowing it is actually used around you and not pointless facts from a lecture. Technology can be used to with certain subjects making it relevant to the student. Software other technology can be used for experiments and hands on learning. Also the internet can be used to search information needed for the curriculum. Students work cooperatively to help each other learn in their society. Dewey believed students should be able to construct, create, and actively inquire. By doing this it prepared the students to be successful in society. Also students learn to educate themselves to the fullest not just mentally.
Thoughts on Dewey’s Theory I think Dewey’s theory for learning is a great idea to use in a classroom. Learning becomes much more interesting when it pertains to your actual life. Not only is it more interesting but also is easier to learn when it has to do with the student. Also Dewey’s idea of learning being student directed is a good idea because students are capable of driving themselves, but with a teacher always there to help them when needed. He looked at education to prepare students well for society, by letting them learn by doing he thought this accomplished that goal. Also I think it is a great idea to educate a child as a whole, not just from facts and information. Facts are forgotten, but when you actively learn something by doing yourself and doing socially it is a lot easier to retain what you’re doing.