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2.4GHz Radio Transceiver for IEEE802.15.4 and ZigBee Applications <ul><li>Source: ATMEL </li></ul>
Introduction <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This training module provides an overview of AT86RF230 RF transceiver, ...
IEEE802.15.4-2003 Standard <ul><li>IEEE802.15.4 is a packet data protocol for lightweight wireless networks. </li></ul><ul...
ZigBee <ul><li>Emerging standardized protocol for Ultra Low Power Wireless Personal Area Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Based ...
Overview of AT86RF230 <ul><li>High performance RF-CMOS 2.4 GHz radio transceiver </li></ul><ul><li>Compliant to IEEE 802.1...
Functional Block Diagram Analog Radio Transceiver Digital Demodulation
Differential RF Port <ul><li>The RF port provides common-mode rejection to suppress the switching noise. </li></ul><ul><li...
AT86RF230 Receiver (RX) <ul><li>The receiver consists of an analog radio front end and a digital base band processor (RX B...
AT86RF230 Transmitter (TX) <ul><li>The AT86RF230 transmitter consists of a digital base band processor (TX BBP) and an ana...
Crystal Oscillator (XOSC) <ul><li>The main crystal oscillator features are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16 MHz amplitude control...
Internal Voltage Regulators <ul><li>The main features of the Voltage Regulator modules are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandgap ...
Battery Monitor <ul><li>The battery monitor (BATMON) detects and indicates a low supply voltage. </li></ul><ul><li>The mai...
<ul><li>SPI Signal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEL: SPI select signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MOSI: SPI data signal (master ...
SPI Operation <ul><li>The SPI works in synchronous or asynchronous mode. </li></ul><ul><li>Each transfer sequence starts w...
Interrupt Logic <ul><li>The  IRQ_MASK register  (0x0E) is used to enable or disable interrupt events by writing the corres...
Basic Operating Mode <ul><li>Power-on after V DD  (P_ON) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It occurs when the external supply voltage ...
Radio Transceiver Usage <ul><li>Frame Receive Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Frame Transmit Procedure </li></ul>
Application Circuit
Tools - ATAVRRZ502 Accessory Kit   <ul><li>The Kit contains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Radio boards (require STK500 + STK501...
Additional Resource <ul><li>For ordering the AT86RF230 RF transceiver, please click the part list or </li></ul><ul><li>Cal...
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2.4G Radio Transceiver for IEEE802.15.4 and ZigBee Applications

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Overview of AT86RF230 RF transceiver, discusses its internal circuits and operations

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2.4G Radio Transceiver for IEEE802.15.4 and ZigBee Applications

  1. 1. 2.4GHz Radio Transceiver for IEEE802.15.4 and ZigBee Applications <ul><li>Source: ATMEL </li></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This training module provides an overview of AT86RF230 RF transceiver, discusses its internal circuits and operations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.15.4 & ZigBee overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AT86RF230 overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal circuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 pages </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. IEEE802.15.4-2003 Standard <ul><li>IEEE802.15.4 is a packet data protocol for lightweight wireless networks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three bands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.4 GHz: 16 channels, 250 kbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>868.3 MHz : 1 channel, 20 kbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>902-928 MHz: 10 channels, 40 kbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 bit or 64 bit addressing mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple frame structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link quality indication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low power consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fully acknowledged protocol for transfer reliability </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. ZigBee <ul><li>Emerging standardized protocol for Ultra Low Power Wireless Personal Area Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse market penetration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building automation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal health care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access controls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low cost, low power, sophisticated networking </li></ul><ul><li>Low data rate & low duty cycle connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporates all layers of software including the Application Layer and below: NWK, MAC, and PHY </li></ul>
  5. 5. Overview of AT86RF230 <ul><li>High performance RF-CMOS 2.4 GHz radio transceiver </li></ul><ul><li>Compliant to IEEE 802.15.4 & ZigBee </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra-low power consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep: 20nA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rx: 15.5mA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tx: 16.5mA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1.8V to 3.6V supply voltage with internal regualtor </li></ul><ul><li>128-byte SRAM for data buffering </li></ul><ul><li>Programmable Clock Output to Clock the Host Microcontroller </li></ul><ul><li>Battery monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Fully Integrated PLL with on-chip Loop Filter </li></ul><ul><li>Few External Components Necessary (Crystal, Capacitors and Antenna </li></ul>
  6. 6. Functional Block Diagram Analog Radio Transceiver Digital Demodulation
  7. 7. Differential RF Port <ul><li>The RF port provides common-mode rejection to suppress the switching noise. </li></ul><ul><li>The RF port is designed for a 100 differential load. </li></ul><ul><li>A DC path to ground or supply voltage is not allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>RF port DC values depend on the operating mode. </li></ul>AT86RF230
  8. 8. AT86RF230 Receiver (RX) <ul><li>The receiver consists of an analog radio front end and a digital base band processor (RX BBR). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LNA amplifies the RF signal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The mixer converts the signal down to an intermediate frequency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Band pass filter selects the channel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A limiting amplifier provides sufficient gain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An ADC generates a digital RSSI signal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The RX BBP performs additional signal filtering and signal synchronization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally the signal is demodulated and the data are stored to the Frame Buffer. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. AT86RF230 Transmitter (TX) <ul><li>The AT86RF230 transmitter consists of a digital base band processor (TX BBP) and an analog radio front end. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The TX BBP reads the frame data from the Frame Buffer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The TX BBP performs the bit-to-symbol and symbol-to-chip mapping as specified by IEEE 802.15.4. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The O-QPSK modulation signal is generated and fed into the analog radio front end. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The fractional-N frequency synthesizer (PLL) converts the base band transmit signal to the RF signal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The power amplifier (PA) amplifies the RF signal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The PA output is internally connected to bidirectional differential antenna pins </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Crystal Oscillator (XOSC) <ul><li>The main crystal oscillator features are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16 MHz amplitude controlled crystal oscillator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>500μs typical settling time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated trimming capacitance array </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmable clock output (CLKM) </li></ul></ul>Using Internal Oscillator Using External Reference Frequency
  11. 11. Internal Voltage Regulators <ul><li>The main features of the Voltage Regulator modules are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandgap stabilized 1.8V supply for analog and digital domain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low dropout (LDO) voltage regulator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configurable for usage of external voltage regulator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The voltage regulators can be configured by the register 0x10 (VREG_CTRL). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The internal regulators can be switched off by setting the register bits to the values AVREG_EXT = 1 and DVREG_EXT = 1 </li></ul></ul>A regulated external supply voltage of 1.8V can be connected to the pins DVDD and AVDD, but the internal regulators must be switched off. AVREG
  12. 12. Battery Monitor <ul><li>The battery monitor (BATMON) detects and indicates a low supply voltage. </li></ul><ul><li>The main features of the battery monitor are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmable voltage threshold range: 1.7V to 3.675V </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery low voltage interrupt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A supply voltage drop below the programmed threshold value is indicated by the BAT_LOW interrupt. </li></ul>BATMON
  13. 13. <ul><li>SPI Signal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEL: SPI select signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MOSI: SPI data signal (master output and slave input) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MISO: SPI data signal (master input and slave output) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCLK: SPI clock </li></ul></ul>Microcontroller to AT86RF230 Interface <ul><li>Control Signal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CLKM: clock signal from AT86RF230 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IRQ: AT86RF230 interrupt request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SLP_TR: AT86RF230 multi purpose control signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RST: AT86RF230 reset signal </li></ul></ul>SPI Control Signals
  14. 14. SPI Operation <ul><li>The SPI works in synchronous or asynchronous mode. </li></ul><ul><li>Each transfer sequence starts with transferring a command byte from SPI master via MOSI, which defines the access mode and additional mode-dependent information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Register access mode: 2-byte read / write operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame Buffer access mode: upload or download frames to the MCU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SRAM access mode: access to certain bytes within the Frame Buffer </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Interrupt Logic <ul><li>The IRQ_MASK register (0x0E) is used to enable or disable interrupt events by writing the corresponding bit to the interrupt mask register. </li></ul><ul><li>The IRQ_STATUS register (0x0F) contains the status of the individual interrupts. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Basic Operating Mode <ul><li>Power-on after V DD (P_ON) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It occurs when the external supply voltage (V DD ) is firstly applied to the radio transceiver. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The on-chip power-on-reset sets all registers to their default values. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sleep state (SLEEP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The entire radio transceiver is disabled. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The register contents remain valid while the content of the Frame Buffer is cleared. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clock state (TRX_OFF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The CLKM output supplies a clock. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PLL state (PLL_ON) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The PLL frequency synthesizer is enabled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rx Listen (RX_ON) & Receive State (BUSY_RX) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The receiver blocks and the PLL frequency synthesizer are enabled. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rx Listen State without CLKM(RX_ON_NOCLK) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the radio transceiver is listening for an incoming frame and the MCU is not running an application, the MCU can be powered down to decrease the total system power consumption. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transmit State (BUSY_TX) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Radio Transceiver Usage <ul><li>Frame Receive Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Frame Transmit Procedure </li></ul>
  18. 18. Application Circuit
  19. 19. Tools - ATAVRRZ502 Accessory Kit <ul><li>The Kit contains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Radio boards (require STK500 + STK501 top module) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 ATmega1281V TQFP AVR Microcontrollers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Atmel IEEE 802.15.4 MAC software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCB layout reference (Gerber files) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The layout can be divided into 3 sections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital: Reset, IRQ, SPI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog: Power supply, crystal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RF: antenna signals, supply decoupling </li></ul></ul>digital RF Analog
  20. 20. Additional Resource <ul><li>For ordering the AT86RF230 RF transceiver, please click the part list or </li></ul><ul><li>Call our sales hotline </li></ul><ul><li>For additional inquires contact our technical service hotline </li></ul><ul><li>For more product information go to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.atmel.com/dyn/products/product_card.asp?part_id=3941 </li></ul></ul>

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