Opening Learning Horizons: eLearning Papers Special Edition 2012


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eLearning Papers special edition 2012 presents a selection of the best contributions from last year about open educational resources, virtual learning environments and creative classrooms. A tablet friendly version of this edition can now be downloaded, browsed and enjoyed as an e-journal. Summaries are available in 23 languages.

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Opening Learning Horizons: eLearning Papers Special Edition 2012

  1. 1. n in g a e s L r re e arn ingp ape pl edition w.ele acia wwPpe S Opening Learning Horizons Discovering the Potential of Co-Creation, Games and Open Learning Diffusion and Adoption of OER Virtual Mobility: The Value of Inter-Cultural Exchange The Language Campus: Role-Play in an eLearning Environment Typologies of Learning Design and the Introduction of a “LD-Type 2” Case Example Scaffolding Student Learning Designers with Social Media Using Patterns to Design Technology-Enhanced Learning Scenarios Fostering Open Educational Practices AVATAR – The Course: Recommendations for Using 3D Virtual Environments for Teaching Creating Invitational Online Learning Environments Using Art-Based Learning Interventions Serious Games and Formal and Informal Learning Ready, Get Set and GO! ELT Blogathon 2011
  2. 2. CreditseLearningPapers www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition 2012 Mission Statement eLearning Papers aims to make innovative ideas and practices in the field of learning more visible by highlighting different perspectives involving the use of technology.eLearning PaperseLearning Papers is an online journal highlighting the latest trends in the area, published fivetimes a year, and offering an executive summary of each article, translated in 21 languages.eLearning Papers is free of charge, available at its own domain: www.elearningpapers.eueLearning Papers is part of the portal, an initiative of the EuropeanCommission’s Directorate-General for Education and Culture, aiming to promote the use ofICT for lifelong learning. The site provides access to extensive information on policy, activitiesand resources and act as a European platform for cooperation and dissemination of good andinnovative practice in the use of multimedia technologies and the internet for improving thequality of learning.eLearning Papers Special Edition 2012 edited by:ISBN: 84-8294-664-1Muntaner 262, 3º, 08021 Barcelona (Spain)http://www.paueducation.comDesign: Mar NietoPhone: +34 933 670 406editorial@elearningeuropa.infohttp://www.elearningpapers.euLegal notice and copyrightBy and eLearning Papers.The views expressed are purely those of the authors and may not in any circumstances be regarded as stating an official position of the EuropeanCommission. Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on its behalf is responsible for the use which might be made of the informationcontained in the present publication. The European Commission is not responsible for the external web sites referred to in the present publication.The texts published in this journal, unless otherwise indicated, are subject to a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivativeWorks 3.0Unported licence. They may be copied, distributed and broadcast provided that the author and the e-journal that publishes them, eLearning Papers, arecited. Commercial use and derivative works are not permitted. The full licence can be consulted on www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
  3. 3. Contents eLearning Papers Special edition 2012 Opening Learning Horizons Contents Editorial....................................................................................................................6 In-depth....................................................................................................................7 Diffusion and Adoption of OER............................................................................................ 8 Virtual Mobility: The Value of Inter-Cultural Exchange...................................................... 19 The Language Campus: Role-Play in an eLearning Environment .................................. 30 Typologies of Learning Design and the Introduction of a “LD-Type 2” Case Example....................................................................................................................... 42 Scaffolding Student Learning Designers with Social Media............................................ 54 Using Patterns to Design Technology-Enhanced Learning Scenarios ............................ 61 From the field.........................................................................................................75 Fostering Open Educational Practices............................................................................... 76 AVATAR – The Course: Recommendations for Using 3D Virtual Environments for Teaching..................................................................... 80 Creating Invitational Online Learning Environments Using Art-Based Learning Interventions...................................................................................... 89 Serious Games and Formal and Informal Learning.......................................................... 93 Ready, Get Set and GO! ELT Blogathon 2011.................................................................. 104eLearningPapers www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
  4. 4. Editorial Board [ +] Tapio Koskinen, Head of New Solutions, Jean Underwood, Professor of Psychology Aalto University Professional Development Nottingham Trent University, UK (Aalto PRO). Aalto. Finland [ +] United Kingdom [ +] Lieve Van den Brande, Senior Jos Beishuizen, Professor of educational Policy Officer, European Commission. science and Director of the Centre for Belgium [ +] Educational Training, Assessment and Research VU University Amsterdam.Netherlands [ +] 
 Pierre-Antoine Ullmo, Founder and Director. Matty Smith, Programme Director P.A.U. Education. European Learning Industry Group (ELIG) Spain [ +] United Kingdom [ +] Lluís Tarín, Strategic and Leadership Advisor Nicolas Balacheff, Kaleidoscope Scientifi c Jesuites Education Manager; Senior Scientist at CNRS (National Spain [ +] Scientifi c Research Center), France [ +] Antonio Bartolomé, Audiovisual Communication Ulf-Daniel Ehlers, Director of the European Professor. University of Barcelona Foundation for Quality in E-Learning Spain [ +] University of Duisburg-Essen Germany [ +] Claire Bélisle, CNRS Research Engineer, France Wojciech Zielinski, Chairman of the Board LIRE (University Lyon 2 CNRS) of MakoLab Ltd; Member of the Board of [ +] Association of Academic E-learning, Poland [ +]Peer-reviewers [ +]Anabela Mesquita. Higher Education. ISCAP Portugal . Giuliano Vivanet. Higher Education. Università degli Studi diAvgoustos Tsinakos. Higher Education. TEI KAVALAS. Greece Cagliari. ItalyAxel Schwarz. Administrative. Germany Guillaume Durin. Higher Education. Jean Moulin Lyon 3 University (France). FranceBulent Cavas. Higher Education. Dokuz Eylul University. Turkey Lucilla Crosta. eLearning specialist. Kelidon AssociationCarlos Morales. Executive or managerial. Sistema UniversitarioAna G. Méndez. Outside Europe Nuno Garcia. Higher Education. Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias. PortugalChris Douce. Higher Education. Open University. UnitedKingdom Pedro Maya Álvarez. Executive or managerial. Divulgación Dinámica S.L.SpainClaudia Panico. Higher Education. Università GabrieleD’ nnunzio Chieti. Italy A Santiago Palacios. Higher Education. Universidad del País Vasco. SpainEvangelos Marinos. Higher Education. Athens Medical School.Greece Paula Peres. Higher Education. PAOL. PortugalEmmanuel Bellengier. Executive or managerial. UI Learning. Alfredo Soeiro. PortugalFranceChief Editor Jimena Márquez, P.A.U. Education [ +]eLearningPapers www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
  5. 5. Guidelinesfor submissionsIn-depth From the field In-Depth articles are full-length texts that discuss current From the field articles are synopses of current practices findings from research or long-term studies. They should or studies taking place within Europe or beyond. They have the following characteristics: should have the following characteristics: − cademic focus: Articles must be original, scientifically A − Brief communications: These articles should summarise accurate and informative, reporting on new experiencies and practices in education, innovation and developments and recently concluded projects. technology with a focus on the applied methodologies and impact evaluation. − n good form editorially: Successful articles are clear and I precise. They should develop their argument coherently − n good form editorially: Successful articles are clear and I and present a unity of thought. precise, they should concisely communicate the key points of the practice being discussed. − ength: Articles should range from 4,000 to 6,000 L words. − Length: Should not exceed 1,200 words. All article submissions should be in DOC format and must include the following: − anguage: Both articles and L In-Depth summaries should not captions for each image and indicate summaries must be in English. exceed 200 words. From the field where they should be placed in the Authors are responsible for ensuring summaries should not exceed 50 text. the correct use of English in their words. texts, and translations should be − eferences: References must R revised before submission. Please − ey words: Authors should include K be accurately cited following note that the journal gives strong up to 5 relevant key words. international standards, please preference to articles that are consult the online guidelines − onclusions: Special importance C for more details: http://www. correctly translated in a legible is given to the representation of manner. the conclusions. Articles must go papers/instructions_for_writers − itle: Must effectively and creatively T beyond telling about a research communicate the content of the process and its methodology and − uthor profile: Author name, A article and may include a subtitle. provide an analysis of the findings. institution, position and email Conclusions should be clearly stated address must accompany each − ummary: This is not an executive S both in the summary and at the end submission. For multiple authors, summary but rather should of the article. please specify the relationship of communicate the key points and authors (ie, if a work is co-authored, conclusions of the article to a large − Images: Please send high-resolution if there is a principal author, etc.) audience. It should be written in JPEG files of all images you wish to an attractive and accessible manner. include in the article. Please includeAuthors are encouraged to consult the website for the most recent call for papers:www.elearningpapers.eueLearningPapers www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
  6. 6. EditorialOpening Learning HorizonsDiscovering the Potential wide spectrum of game-based learning, an e-journal. Although the complete from schools to informal learning and version of the new e-journal is availableof Co-Creation, Games and language learning. Learning design is only in English, we will continue toOpen Learning addressed by three in-depth articles, provide summaries of all the publishedIn 2011, eLearning Papers has while the potential of virtual mobility articles and editorials in 21 Europeancontinued to support researchers and in higher education is explored in languages at in the ongoing dialog another. Blogathlon 2011 presents a caseabout the role of ICT in education. study of language learning and another The introduction of the new digitalOver the last year, eLearning Papers case study looks into the potential of format does not mean that we haveadvanced its mission to focus on the art-based learning interventions in completely abandoned the printedfollowing key issues: open educational eLearning. special issues. However, we believeresources, virtual learning environments, in moving in bytes instead of atoms,and creative classrooms. The challenges eLearning Papers continues in its effort whenever possible.and possibilities presented by this to improve the journal’s readability and The Special Issue 2012 marksfield of study are a constant source of access. A new category of published the beginning of the sixth yearinspiration for this journal. We want articles was introduced in the beginning of eLearning Papers. The activeto thank all our 2011 contributors for of the year. The From the field community of readers, authors andsharing their work and enriching the section includes synopses of current individuals who have invested theirdebate. practices or case studies in education, time and effort as guest editors and peer innovation and technology, with aSome of the most popular eLearning reviewers has made the success of our focus on the applied methodologiesPapers saw daylight last year. Thematic journal possible. Together we can make and impact evaluation. In addition toissues on Open Learning, Game Based the world a bit better. more extensive in-depth articles, thisLearning and Learning Design attracted new category has proven its popularityhigh numbers of exceptionally good, among our readers and authors. Pierre-Antoine Ullmoquality contributions. The six In-depth www.elearningpapers.euarticles and five From the field articles Member of the Editorial Board Furthermore, the last issue of 2011 Founder and Director ofbring together selected contributions introduced a new publication format P.A.U. Education [ +]from last year, representing the ‘best in the same look and feel that hadof the best’ of eLearning Papers from been tested in print a year earlier. A2011. Two of the articles cover three Tapio Koskinen tablet friendly version of eLearning www.elearningpapers.eucase studies of OER use in institutional Papers special editions can now be Director of the Editorial Boardcontexts. Three articles address the downloaded, browsed and enjoyed as Design and Innovation Initiative, Secretary General, Aalto University [ +]eLearningPapers www.elearningpapers.euSpecial edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
  7. 7. In-depthFostering analysis and discussion on Learning trends in Europe g D iffusion and Adoption of OER in Virtual Mobility: the Value of Inter-cultural n Exchange a r T he Language Campus: Role-Play in an e s eLearning Environment L r T ypologies of Learning Design and thee e Introduction of a “LD-Type 2” Case Example caffolding Student Learningpe S with Social Media ing pa Designers learn p e ww.Patterns to Design Technology- a w U singP Enhanced Learning Scenarios eLearning Papers Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
  8. 8. 8 eLearningPapers Diffusion and AdoptionIn-depth of OER [ ] Authors Cornelis Adrianus (Kees-Jan) van Dorp Former Research Director. European Association of Distance Teaching Universities [ +] Andy Lane Director. OpenLearn, Open University [ +] 1. Introduction This paper provides insight into how to improve the diffusion Summary In this paper, the diffusion and adoption of OER through (formal) institutional networks. It does so by of Open Educational Resources (OER), examining two cases: (1) MORIL – the Multilingual Open Resources for Independent Learning task force, a Network through (formal) institutional networks, of Practice that acted as a space for sharing and developing is analysed. An obvious way to start, institutional OER strategies, and (2) TESSA – The Teacher is with an understanding as to what Education in Sub Saharan Africa programme, an RD initiative OER actually are. OER are defined for OER and course design guidance for teachers and teacher- as ‘teaching, learning, and research educators working in Sub-Saharan African countries. The paper resources that reside in the public reflects on institutional development practices regarding the domain or have been released under an dimensions and models of collaboration and innovation within intellectual property license that permits communities and networks of practice. A frame of reference is their free use or re-purposing by others. used, which aids the analysis of the OER diffusion and adoption Open educational resources include processes in each case. full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge’ [1], and are being created Tags and used throughout the world through Open educational resources, the utilisation of digital technologies diffusion, adoption, OER competence, and open licences. In many cases, it has been major institutions such as the communities of practice Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) that have been at the forefront of publishing OER, but equally, there are a growing number of individuals who are experimenting with the creation and use of OER. However, the total number of institutions creating and using OER are still small compared to all those who could be involved; and, inevitably adopters have been attempting to collaborate in an area which is based on the philosophy of sharing (see http:// Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
  9. 9. 9 eLearningPapersIn-depth Equally, while the sharing of OER has been the original focus of everyone involved, it is increasingly recognised that it is more about open educational practices and how openness is influencing the way institutions teach and students learn (see [2], for a review of open educational practices and resources). As an innovation themselves and as a prompt for further innovation, it is necessary to look at what features might support the successful diffusion of this innovation amongst institutions rather than individuals. To do so, we first review some of the literature relating to diffusion and adoption of innovations, as well as literature on communities and networks of practice. We then review Figure 1: Five phases in the adoption of innovations [3]. and reflect on two contrasting studies where institutional networks have been critical to innovation diffusion and adoption. of time among members belonging find out more information about to the same social system. In Roger’s the innovation. In the Persuasion Diffusion of Innovations model [3], Phase, the individual (or institution) 1.1 Diffusion and adoption five phases in the adoption process are is interested in the innovation and of OER: a frame of distinguished: Knowledge, Persuasion, actively seeks information/detail about reference Decision, Implementation, and the innovation. In the Decision Phase, Confirmation (Figure 1). the individual takes the concept of the This section introduces a frame of innovation and weighs the advantages/ reference, by which to discuss the Let us now get into the mechanics disadvantages of using the innovation analysis of OER diffusion and adoption. of the five phases. In the Knowledge and decides whether to adopt or reject Diffusion of an innovation can be Phase, the individual (or institution) the innovation. Due to the more closed regarded as a process, an adoption is first exposed to an innovation but or less open nature of this phase Rogers process ([3], [4], [5], and [6]). This lacks information about the innovation. notes that it is the most difficult stage process takes place through a series of During this phase of the process the to acquire empirical evidence. In the communication channels over a period individual has not been inspired to Implementation Phase, the individual eLearning Papers Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
  10. 10. 10 eLearningPapersIn-depth Imagine an organisation commencing from a zero state, from which it moves to develop competence in OER. When it is able to develop OER competence among only a small quantum of learners (even be it high competence), it will only manage what we call a ‘Silent representation’. The organisational leverage is rather insignificant and the strategic underpinning is negligible. An OER ambition can however be successfully underpinned if the development of OER competence is widely adopted by learners throughout an organisation. In the case of such a Figure 2: Based on the framework of Hamel and Prahalad [7]: The road to OER success collective learning ambition, with a through collective ambition and competence. clear strategic intent, the organisation is likely to move from ‘Silent representation’ towards ‘Successful (or institution) employs the innovation collective learning is needed according strategic exploitation’. Organisations to a varying degree depending on to Hamel and Prahalad [7]. They relate may also cherish very high level the situation. During this Phase the the strategic intent of an organisation OER ambitions, whereas the ‘actual’ individual determines the usefulness i.e., the collective ambition, to the OER development of competence of the innovation and may search for development of core competences and remains largely underdeveloped. In further information about it. In the indicate that when an organisation is such situations, the collective learning Confirmation Phase, the individual not yet successful in an area, but wants ambition remains a rather utopic (or institution) finalises their decision to move ahead, an investment is first of scenario, and as such, the organisation is to continue using the innovation and all made in strengthening the collective out of touch with reality. may use the innovation to its fullest ambition, followed successively by potential. In addition to this model the development of the necessary 1.2 Communities and of adoption, any strategic success of competences. Figure 2 depicts the an institution strongly depends on relation between the collective OER networks of practice the appropriate organisation of its ambition and the development of There has been a growing interest in collective ambition and the presence necessary OER competence. recent years in Communities of Practice of core competences. For building and (CoP) and Networks of Practice developing new core competences, (NoP) in connection with informal eLearning Papers Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
  11. 11. 11 eLearningPapersIn-depth knowledge gathering, notably in the Aspects What does it mean fields of education and both knowledge management and innovation within Members come together because they are engaged organisations, but also in fields such as in actions whose meaning they negotiate with one Mutual engagement healthcare and computer science [8]. another. They develop shared practices and are linked Although the idea of communities of through their mutual engagement in such activities. practice has been around for many Members work together, explicitly or implicitly, to years, it was first made explicit by Joint enterprise achieve a negotiated common goal, which may or may Lave and Wenger in their work on not be officially defined. apprenticeship and situated learning [9]. Around the same time the notion A common history and culture is generated over time by of networks of practice originated shared practices, stories, tools, concepts and repeated in the work of Brown and Duguid Shared repertoire interactions. Writing, routines, rituals, ways of doing [10], who applied the term to the things and so on, become a common repository. relations among groups of people with looser connections than expected in Table 1: Three aspects of Communities of Practice a CoP. Lave and Wenger [9] define a community of practice as “a set of relations among persons, activity periphery. Communities of practice of practice may sit. Podolny and Page and world, over time and in relation are repositories of explicit or formal [12] define networks as “any collection with other tangential communities knowledge as well as the less tangible of actors that pursue repeated enduring of practice” (p. 98). In simple terms, tacit, informal knowledge, and hold the exchange relations with one another communities of practice are groups of key to any form of change process [10]. and, at the same time, lack a legitimate people who share a common pursuit, They are inherently stable and it is this organisational authority to arbitrate and activity or concern. Members do not stability that allows learning within and resolve disputes that may arise during necessarily work together, but form a around the community to take place. the exchange” (p. 59). Social network common identity and understanding Wenger [11] identifies three aspects theory views relationships in terms through their common interests of communities of practice that work of nodes (individual actors) and ties and interactions. Many different together and that may either hinder or (the relationships between actors) and communities of practice exist and enhance learning (Table 1): views the attributes of the individual we may all be members of several, actors as less important than their for example, through our work or There has been a growing academic relationships (or ties) with other actors hobbies. They are often informal and interest in what happens beyond [13]. This is distinct from theories about self-managed. For some communities communities of practice, in the communities of practice, which focus of practice we may be a core member, informal or formal organisational on an individual’s competences and whereas for others we may sit on the networks within which a community practices. Many networks are viewed eLearning Papers Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
  12. 12. 12 eLearningPapersIn-depth as having a structure whereby at the of potential innovation adopters is organisation of both the European core are those members who are closely thus subjected to social influence. open and distance learning universities tied to each other and at the periphery Through interactions with other and of the national consortia of higher are members who have more ties to potential adopters, opinions on new education institutions active in the field core members than to each other. technologies are formed and shaped. of distance education and e-learning The concept of networks of practice Therefore, much more is involved than and as such its members have shared is distinctive in that it recognises simple information transmission in the practices and goals that are often that there may be people beyond an adoption of an innovation; it involves distinctive and different to campus organisation within which an individual revisions of judgements, discussions based universities. As an institutional is situated, who share their practice or in a wider practice related or socio- network it is the main voice of the may influence that practice through economic system, and an individual’s community for open and distance their own practices. receptivity to influence. higher education and e-learning in Europe. EADTU aims to promote the However, like CoPs, members often progress of open and distance education participate in several networks of 2 Case study 1: MORIL and e-learning and its position in practice [14]. Networks of practice In this section the results of the first Europe and in the world, through have the same features as communities study are presented: MORIL. The start- active support to the institutional of practice (their subset) but may up phase, adoption phase and extended development of its members and to the have weaker ties. What binds the adoption phase are described, along European wide co-operation between network together is shared practice, with the experiences gained. Following, them in strategic areas. The framework and extensive shared practice leads the analysis of the case is presented and for all this activity is the creation of the to extensive shared know-how important conclusions are drawn. European Area of Higher Education ([10], [15], and [14]), although some (Bologna Declaration), the national of that knowhow may come from and European policies with regard to exchanges with others outside the 2.1 Introduction lifelong learning, the development of network. Whilst not usually applied The European Association of Distance competencies for the European citizen to relationships between organisations Teaching Universities (EADTU) has and the innovation of e-learning and there is no reason why a group of been working on OER strategies in teaching by the use of ICT. institutions cannot come together lifelong open and flexible learning as a network of practice if they have through an EADTU taskforce on shared practices and possibly joint or Multilingual Open Resources for 2.2 MORIL in start-up phase mutual goals. In relation to innovation, Independent Learning (MORIL – The action to place OER on the Deroian [16] drawing on the work see and the agenda of the Board, Rectors’ and of others, argues that individuals (and European project ‘Innovative OER in Executive meetings of the EADTU potentially institutions) are embedded European Higher Education (OER- came from the Open Universiteit in a relational network and the opinion HE)’. EADTU is the representative Nederland, in an attempt to learn from eLearning Papers Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
  13. 13. 13 eLearningPapersIn-depth The Open University in the UK, which and Flora Hewlett Foundation. The came, however, that the bid to the was an early adopter of OER [17]. initial OER taskforce was renamed William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Preparatory work and discussions as to MORIL in accordance with the name would not be accepted in its current what this would imply for universities of the proposal which was submitted form. A renewed (second) proposal commenced. Simultaneously, the to the William and Flora Hewlett was submitted, which focused more on partner universities individually started Foundation. Through the MORIL the valorisation of the lessons learned consultations with experts such as grant, momentum could be created and their dissemination towards other those at The Open University. These within the participating institutions universities and networks inside and experiences were fed back into joint and the exchange of ideas about outside Europe. This proposal was network meetings. The taskforce on institutional strategies for OER could accepted by the William and Flora OER was an attempt to learn from be sustained. Additionally, a conceptual Hewlett Foundation and enabled the early adopters, obtain insight in model with learning modules in three EADTU to organise a series of Best- the pros and cons of OER, and gain tracks was devised: (1) access to fully Practice seminars related to OER experience with ways of working, open courses, (2) access to additional strategy implementation, OER strategy sharing, and partnering. The primary services like competence assessments development and OER capacity objective of the taskforce was to extend and access to learning communities, building. EADTU (also) obtained the commitment base to OER at the and (3) access to formal tutoring, organisational and financial support partner institutions through dedicated examinations and certification. The from both the European Commission individuals, who would then be able to grant by the William and Flora Hewlett and UNESCO for this approach. make preparations for the establishment Foundation was used as a planning of a broader consortium. Firstly, grant, to (also) try to obtain a second • The first seminar i.e., the strategy aiming at the consolidation of the (larger) grant, which could help implementation seminar, took place taskforce, some significant subjects and implement the three-track concept on 27-28 May 2008 at The Open perspectives were discussed in depth. across the MORIL Consortium, and University (UK) in Milton Keynes, Secondly, having received commitment which would foresee funding for all and was intended for high-end from the partners, activities to participating partners and stretch the representatives of the Open Universities. design a roadmap for the future, initiative beyond its start-up scope. To Integral cases by The Open University commenced, including a lot of effort in write the new proposal, a core group i.e., the case of OpenLearn (http:// dissemination and awareness raising. of the taskforce was delegated to do and the the essential work. Meetings took place Open Universiteit Nederland (the in Brussels, Milton Keynes, Hagen, case of OpenER – see http://www. 2.3 MORIL in adoption phase, were discussed, dealing Heerlen, and in Leuven. While awaiting The partner universities only really the outcome of the second bid to the with issues like: strategy, sustainability, entered the adoption process of OER William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, technology, IP, curriculum, academic when the taskforce initiative received all universities simultaneously continued participation, quality, and organisational financial support from the William their own local OER activities. News structures. In addition, various eLearning Papers Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
  14. 14. 14 eLearningPapersIn-depth institutional approaches of open and and to the 2009 World Conference The new OER HE project enables distance teaching universities were on Higher Education, organised by partners to follow different phases assessed, using Compendium software UNESCO (Paris, July 2009). within the innovation cycle as regards: based mediation and force field analysis awareness raising, strategy building, [18]. institutional frameworks, pedagogic 2.4 Lowards extended adoption models, business models, and pilot • The second seminar i.e., the strategy Innovations such as OER are valuable experiments. The project valorises development seminar, was held on for the mass of individual learners, yet all partners’ practices to date and 28-29 October 2008 in Leuven. It to date have resisted diffusion in many disseminates the successes. The project aimed to facilitate knowledge transfer educational institutions. To sustain also delivers a manual on how to deal between regular universities and open the process of adopting OER, and to with OER development. and distance teaching universities avoid slow movers from developing an as far as OER (best) practices were innovation gap, a new European project concerned. It succeeded in its mission has been formulated by EADTU. This 2.5 Case analysis by presentation of institutes leading in new European initiative is meant to and conclusion OER throughout Europe, including additionally stimulate institutions to Almost every open and distance panel discussions with representatives reach a tipping point, by enabling them teaching university participated in of universities and the European to continue learning from fast movers. EADTU taskforce meetings and Commission. The seminar lived up The new project has been approved gatherings. Mostly all were starting to the expectations of both regular under the Lifelong Learning Programme at the beginning of the innovation universities and representatives of (LLP), within the strand Erasmus. The cycle. However, it was the authority of university associations. project ‘Innovative OER in European key people and their ability to spread Higher Education’ (see http://www. information about OER within the • The third seminar was held on 12- now includes 11 own institution that often played a 13 March 2009, at the UNESCO European partners. The project is significant role in adoption. From Headquarters in Paris. It was headed by organised into five study work packages: OpenLearn it was learned that OER the Director of UNESCO’s Division of Higher Education. The objective was 1. idening participation i.e., best- w could be made functional in the context to explore the potential of OER for practices; of university strategies. OER at the improving the provision of education 2. ulti campus i.e., education m OU UK had been lifted to the level of in Africa, Arab States, Asia, the Pacific, associations; university policy [19]. With OpenLearn and Latin America, incorporating the 3. nternationalisation i.e., team-based i being part of policy, other departments development of relationships with development; were stimulated to become involved regional and global networks. The 4. evelopment of instruments for d as well, making the spread of OER seminar had also been organised to quality in OER; skills and competences throughout the provide input to the ICDE/EADTU 5. evelopment of a European course d university far easier. The involvement Conference (Maastricht, June 2009) portal. of university Board members in the eLearning Papers Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
  15. 15. 15 eLearningPapersIn-depth acceptance and adoption of OER was must be in place for at least five 3. Case study 2: TESSA crucial in this process. Those members years. Within MORIL, intermediate In this section the results of the second which participated in EADTU changes in top management have study are presented: TESSA. First, meetings but had little scope to reset the process of adoption within an introduction is given on TESSA, influence university policy on their institutions, several times. The ability followed by a description of the design own, may have experienced success of a university to scale up the merits and dynamics of TESSA. The section in exploiting OER on the local of successful innovations apparently ends with the case analysis and the departmental level, but experienced has a lot to do with authoritative drawing of conclusions. great difficulties in scaling up merits persons and governance. As noted for to the university as a whole. However, MORIL, some taskforce participants 3.1 Introduction all participating members of the had direct relations to the university MORIL taskforce did express a certain Board and/or were themselves This case study is heavily based upon passion and willingness to make it an Board members or Rectors. Others the account in Wolfenden [20] and institutional success, as well. acted as representatives or were staff related publications. Over the last four members from departments within years The Open University in the In reference to the innovation the university. The composition of the UK has been involved in an audience adoption model of Rogers, we taskforce, which was not homogeneous specific OER programme; the Teacher conclude that some institutions had but rather heterogeneous, made a Education in Sub Saharan Africa problems, especially in the persuasion future assessment of the impact of (TESSA) initiative (see http://www. phase. The person(s) that needed to OER on institutions, difficult. TESSA is a consortium persuade the university Board often of institutions concerned with the did not stand in direct relation to that At this moment, only a few distance collaborative production of original Board, causing an acceptance barrier. teaching universities have incorporated OER to support teacher development. With high-level involvement from the OER in their institutional strategy. The major funding for the TESSA first phase onward, such a problem As a result, some universities remain initiative has come from the Allan was notably smaller. Turning to the climbing the ladder. However, the and Nesta Ferguson Charitable Trust theory of collective ambition and the processes of MORIL do seem to have and the William and Flora Hewlett development of core competences in created a nascent Network of Practice Foundation. the case of OER, the bottleneck with where the opportunities to interact many institutions is the mobilisation of and share information and knowledge TESSA has five distinct characteristics. the collective ambition, whereby many has sustained the consideration of First, it is a global consortium, including OER projects remain local and do not OER as an innovation throughout organisations like the BBC World reach top management. Because of this, EADTU and also into other networks. Service Trust and the Commonwealth there has been little opportunity for Because of this, in 2010, the EADTU of Learning, as well as the South core competencies to be developed. launched an extended adoption African Institute for Distance Education According to Hamel and Prahalad [7], phase, co-funded by the European (SAIDE), but focussed on the needs top management must be involved Commission, intended to safeguard of teacher education in nine African in developing a robust programme slow movers from an upcoming countries. TESSA is a consortium of 18 for institutional competencies, and innovation gap. national and international organisations eLearning Papers Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
  16. 16. 16 eLearningPapersIn-depth including 13 institutions in Sub- often materials in each course originate in understanding ways of integrating Saharan Africa, who are using the from only one or two authors. Fourth, the materials into what have been TESSA materials in a variety of teacher the TESSA initiative is creatively termed ‘learning pathways’. TESSA education programmes (for further exploring the use of OER audio development teams are actively details see TESSA in Use). Second, as content. Both different formats – drama, exploring issues of reuse and an OER initiative it is unique in being interviews, features – and modes of interoperability. Colleagues across the audience specific to teachers. delivery including radio, CD and use partner institutions have not been seen of mobile phones. Lastly, significant as consumers of imported educational Third, in TESSA the user, the teacher- time and resources is being put into material but rather as collaborators in educator, has been at the centre of the the implementation and use of the content production, distribution and initiative. The vast majority of the OER resources, an aspect given insufficient utilisation. Awareness of the current have been created collaboratively by attention in many OER initiatives [1]. situation in these institutions together teacher-educators from across Africa with likely short and medium term (over 100 authors have been involved). contexts for exploitation has been at the The developments of both materials 3.2. TESSA design centre of TESSA OER development. and the portal have involved extensive and dynamics consultation with potential user groups In TESSA the project design has The dynamics of the TESSA building on local knowledge, materials allowed the consortium to look in consortium can be represented and approaches. In contrast, most detail at issues such as adoption of the by Figure 3. All eighteen partner OER projects transfer materials from resources for different environments institutions contribute to the strategic existing courses to an open platform; and how best ‘users’ can be supported direction of the initiative through regular workshops, meetings and electronic discussions. Each partner institution is represented on the ‘Partner Advisory Council’ (PAC), the key governance forum for TESSA activity. Support for PAC is provided by a group of academics and administrators from The Open University, UK. Working in a consortium across several countries inevitably brings challenges of coordination and communication; these are vastly increased by the unreliable and uneven infrastructure found in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Regular workshops in different locations across the region have been pivotal in maintaining momentum, building Figure 3: TESSA organisational structure [20]. relationships and shared understandings. eLearning Papers Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
  17. 17. 17 eLearningPapersIn-depth Work around the four areas of activity – The Open University in the UK. structure and governance arrangements - research, technological development Many of the participants were aware for the consortium, working variously (the TESSA portal), curriculum (TESSA of OER but The Open University across a number of activities, has study units) and take up - is determined played a big role in persuading partners been important in developing both in detail by a smaller working group that OER were a necessary part of the communities and networks of practice for each area. Different partners input initiative (when the programme first amongst the partners, which is also to different areas of activity. Some, such started, OER did not feature strongly being carried over in some cases to as the BBC World Service Trust, have at all) and as described in the case, the the work of individual partners in been involved almost exclusively with decision to adopt OER became central particular countries. In fact, while only one sphere of activity, in this case to successful implementation of creating EADTU is a long established network production of curriculum materials. and sharing resources for teacher compared to that created specifically Other partners have contributed to education. In fact, the whole process of and more recently for TESSA, the several strands of activity, represented by educational resource creation and use very openness of OER and associated the links on the represented diagram. was a major innovation for most of the open educational practices means that All thirteen institutions in Sub-Saharan partners and it was the open licensing people are more likely to be aware Africa involved in teacher education and judicious use of technologies of them, can more readily find out have contributed to activity around alongside workshops and meetings more information and see examples implementing use of the OER in designed to share information and of adoption by others (including the courses and programmes. Central to this knowledge about these practices that reasons for doing so) and how they model is the multi-directional interplay helped develop the core competencies have implemented the innovation [21]. between the concurrent different within the organisations once the At the same time, the common goal or strands of activity. The structure and collective ambition was achieved. joint enterprise, represented by distance nature of the curriculum, for example, Equally, the collective ambition within teaching or teacher education in the has been informed by planned contexts and between the partners was aided by two cases, moves the relationship on for use (take up), by the forms of the fact that the consortium aim was from one of just cooperation to greater technology available for distribution the creation of the common resources collaboration amongst the members (technical) and by research activity and shared understanding of educational of the institutional network. So, while within the project. The latter has practices that then enabled different these were formal networks for the included fieldwork exploring the lives partners to go on and use the OER common purpose, the openness also of female primary school teachers living for a variety of other purposes. This enabled aspects of informality between and working in rural or semi-rural areas has led to extended adoption of OER members in sharing information about in Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, Kenya and extended practices amongst some innovations. and Sudan. of these partners without the need for additional external grant funding. However, it has to be acknowledged, 3.3 Case analysis and conclusion just as with the EADTU network, As with the MORIL project, the external grant funding can be critical TESSA network of practice started with in maintaining the momentum of a desire to share the knowledge and adoption and sustaining the network experiences of an early OER adopter of practice. It is also the case that the eLearning Papers Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
  18. 18. 18 eLearningPapers ReferencesIn-depth tkins, D.E., Brown, J S. and Hammond, A.L. (2007). A Review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement: A Achievements, Challenges, and New Opportunities, Report to The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, accessed August 17 2010 from , eser, G. (2007). Open Educational Practices and Resources: OLCOS Roadmap 2012, 150 pp., accessed August 17 2010 G , from Rogers, E.M. (1962). Diffusion of Innovations, New York: Free Press. Rogers, E.M. (1983). Diffusion of Innovations (3rd ed.), New York: Free Press. Rogers, E.M. (1995). Diffusion of Innovations (4th ed.), New York: Free Press. Rogers, E.M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations (5th ed.), New York: Free Press. Hamel, G. and Prahalad, C.K. (1994). Competing for the Future, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Hildreth, P and Kimble, C. (2004). Innovations through Communities of Practice, Idea Group Publishing, Hershey USA. . ave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Learning, L Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. rown J.S. and Duguid P (2001). Knowledge and Organization: A Social-Practice Perspective, B . Organization Science 12, 2, pp. 198-213. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of Practice, Learning, Meaning, and Identity, Cambridge University Press, New York. Podolny, J.M., Page, K.L. (1998). Network Forms of Organization, Annual Review of Sociology 24, pp. 57-76. helan, E. (2007). Exploring Knowledge Exchange in Electronic Networks of Practice, W Journal of Information Technology 22, pp. 5-12. Hustad, E. and Teigland, R. (2005). Taking a Differentiated View of Intra-Organizational Distributed Networks of Practice: A Case Study Exploring Knowledge Activities, Diversity and Communication Media Use, Communities and Technologies, pp. 239-261. Brown J.S. and Duguid P (2002). The Social Life of Information, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, USA. . Deroian, F (2002). Formation of Social Networks and Diffusion of Innovations, Research Policy 31, pp. 835-846. . ourley, B. and Lane, A. (2009). Re-invigorating Openness at The Open University: the Role of Open Educational G Resources, Open Learning, Vol. 24(1), pp. 57-65. kada, A., Connolly, T., and Lane, A. (2010). Integrating Strategic Views about Open Educational Resources through O Collaborative Sensemaking, International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society, 6(6), pp. 165-186. Lane A. (2008). Reflections on Sustaining Open Educational Resources: an Institutional Case Study, eLearning Papers No. 10, September 2008, 13 pp. Wolfenden, F (2008). The TESSA OER Experience: Building Sustainable Models of Production and User Implementation, . Journal of Interactive Media in Education (3) 16. Lane, A. and McAndrew, P (2010). Are Open Educational Resources Systematic or Systemic Change Agents for Teaching . Practice?, British Journal of Educational Technology, 41, pp. 952-962. eLearning Papers Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial
  19. 19. 19 eLearningPapers Virtual Mobility: The Value ofIn-depth Inter-Cultural Exchange [ ] Authors Rosana Montes. [ +] Miguel Gea. [ +] Dpt. Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos E.T.S.I. Informatica y de Telecomunicación University of Granada Claudio Dondi. [ +] Tania Salandin. [ +] SCIENTER 1. Introduction Virtual Mobility makes European and worldwide available Summary According to the “Trends in Global to those who are not able to benefit from existing, physical, Higher Education: Tracking an international exchange programmes, and therefore benefits a Academic Revolution” report – wider community. In this paper, we reformulate the concept prepared for the 2009 UNESCO of Virtual Mobility and introduce the Movinter Modelling World Conference of Higher Education Framework, which supports HEIs in designing and implementing – major trends in higher education an integrated use of Virtual Mobility to enhance the are: massification in higher education; internationalisation of study experiences. globalization and internationalization; The paper closes with recommendations on how to extract distance education and new applications the potential of Virtual Mobility in the next decade. We must for information and communication continue to question why Virtual Mobility is important, and technologies (ICTs); the privatization pay attention to the unexploited potential of this idea, in order of higher education; the global flow of to: (1) democratise access to an international, transdisciplinary talent (globalization has exacerbated and multicultural study experience, now available only to a the worldwide movement of highly relatively small minority of students, thereby contributing to educated people); the academic social cohesion; (2) produce stable collaboration among teaching profession at a crossroads for the student and research teams, and their institutions, building on recognised experience; research universities and the complementarities and specialisations through networking “world-class” phenomenon; financing activities; (3) make the practice of joint titles, at various academic higher education; quality assurance levels (undergraduate, master and doctoral programs) and with and university-industry linkages. To diverse modalities (master classes, single subjects, seminars and cope with these major trends and to workshops) a reality, even before a full institutional recognition strengthen and enhance international of academic titles from other countries are in place; and (4) link cooperation – by encouraging diversity, European universities/HEIs to each other and to universities/HEIs pursuing equity, relevance and quality – in other parts of the world. HEIs can rely on VIRTUAL mobility (VM), one of the most valuable and, at the same time, underestimated tool. Tags higher education, virtual mobility, internationalisation, cultural exchange, equal access Languages cz da de bg et el es fr it lv lt hu nl pl pt ro sk sl fi sv eLearning Papers Special edition Credits Contents Editorial Board Guidelines for submissions Editorial